Digital Library Tauranga

 Abrahim, G. M. S; Parker, R. J.

Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment , 2008
Abstract: Eight sediment cores recovered from Tamaki Estuary were analysed for Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd using downward cored sub-samples. The results indicate a significant upward enrichment in heavy metals with the highest concentrations found in the uppermost 0-10 cm layer. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in marine sediments requires knowledge of pre-anthropogenic metal concentrations to act as a reference against which measured values can be compared. Pristine values for the cored sediments were determined from flat "base-line" metal trends evident in lower core samples. Various methods for calculating metal enrichment and contamination factors are reviewed in detail and a modified and more robust version of the procedure for calculating the degree of contamination is proposed. The revised procedure allows the incorporation of a flexible range of pollutants, including various organic species, and the degree of contamination is expressed as an average ratio rather than an absolute summation number. Comparative data for normalized enrichment factors and the modified degree of contamination show that Tamaki Estuary sediments have suffered significant systematic heavy metal contamination following catchment urbanization. Compared to baseline values the uppermost sediment layers show four-fold enrichment averaged across eight cores and four analysed metals.
Abrahim, G. M. S; Parker, R. J; Nichol, S. L.
Distribution and assessment of sediment toxicity in Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand
Environmental Geology, 2007
Abstract: Heavy metal levels in surface sediments from Tamaki Estuary demonstrate significant up estuary increases in Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and mud concentrations. Increased metal levels towards the head of the estuary are linked to local catchment sources reflecting the historical development, industrialisation and urbanisation of catchment areas surrounding the upper estuary. The relatively narrow constriction in the middle estuary (Panmure area), makes it susceptible to accumulation of upper estuary pollutants, since the constriction reduces circulation and extends the time required for fine waterborne sediments in the upper estuary to exchange with fresh coastal water. As a result fine fraction sediments trapped in the upper estuary facilitate capture and retention of pollutants at the head of the estuary. The increase in sandy mud poor sediments towards the mouth of the estuary is associated with generally low metal concentrations. The estuary’s geomorphic shape with a mid estuary constriction, sediment texture and mineralogy and catchment history are significant factors in understanding the overall spatial distribution of contaminants in the estuary. Bulk concentration values for Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in all the studied surface samples occur below ANZECC ISQG-H toxicity values. Cd and Cu concentrations are also below the ISQG-L toxicity levels for these elements. However, Pb and Zn concentrations do exceed the ISQG-L values in some of the surface bulk samples in the upper estuary proximal to long established sources of catchment pollution.

Acosta, H; Forrest, B. M.
The spread of marine non-indigenous species via recreational boating: A conceptual model for risk assessment based on fault tree analysis
Ecological Modelling Journal, 2009
Abstract: Recreational vessel movements are increasingly recognised as an important pathway for the spread of non-indigenous species(NIS) in marine environments. Research on risks posed by recreational vessels has focused on external hull fouling, yet a number of studies reveal the potential for NIS to also be transferred by a range of other vessel components. This paper uses fault tree analysis as a framework for incorporating input from a panel of international experts, to elucidate the consecutive steps that must occur for NIS to be introduced from different components of recreational boats. Our conceptual model reveals the complexity of the invasion process even when only the 'release' phase is considered (i.e. the release of NIS from an infected vessel into a new area). The model highlights that, in addition to external fouling of the 'hull'(hull, rudder and propeller), important vessel components may also include fouling, sediment or water released from the deck, internal spaces, anchors and fishing/diving gear. The extent to which these components are important is situation-specific, and depends on attributes of the vessel, location and NIS present. Hence, the comprehensive model described here could be modified or simplified to reflect the attributes that are relevant to particular circumstances. We demonstrate this principle using examples of three NIS: the colonial tunicate Didemnum vexillum and the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida that both have established in Port Nelson New Zealand after vessel-mediated spread, and the clubbed tunicate Styela clava that was detected on a vessel hull in the port but is not known to have established. Although the modelling and assessment of some of the events identified in the fault trees would be difficult or unrealistic, it is important to acknowledge them in order to provide a comprehensive risk assessment tool. Even where risks are largely unknown, difficult to quantify, or reflect stochastic events, this does not necessarily preclude management intervention.

Agrawal, A.
Why "indigenous" knowledge?
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 2009
Abstract: Discussion on research of indigenous knowledge and reasons for interest in it; comparison with "scientific knowledge" and the use of these terms.

Airoldi, L; Beck, M. W.
Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe
Oceanography and Marine Biology Journal: An Annual Review, 2007
Abstract: Over the centuries, land reclamation, coastal development, overfishing and pollution have nearly eliminated European wetlands, seagrass meadows, shellfish beds, biogenic reefs and other productive and diverse coastal habitats. It is estimated that every day between 1960 and 1995, a kilometre of European coastline was developed. Most countries have estimated losses of coastal wetlands and seagrasses exceeding 50% of the original area with peaks above 80% for many regions. Conspicuous declines, sometimes to virtual local disappearance of kelps and other complex macroalgae, have been observed in several countries. A few dominant threats have led to these losses over time. The greatest impacts to wetlands have consistently been land claim and coastal development. The greatest impacts to seagrasses and macroalgae are presently associated with degraded water quality while in the past there have been more effects from destructive fishing and diseases. Coastal development remains an important threat to seagrasses. For biogenic habitats, such as oyster reefs and maerls, some of the greatest impacts have been from destructive fishing and overexploitation with additional impacts of disease, particularly to native oysters. Coastal development and defence have had the greatest known impacts on soft-sediment habitats with a high likelihood that trawling has affected vast areas. The concept of 'shifting baselines', which has been applied mostly to the inadequate historical perspective of fishery losses, is extremely relevant for habitat loss more generally. Most habitat loss estimates refer to a relatively short time span primarily within the last century. However, in some regions, most estuarine and near-shore coastal habitats were already severely degraded or driven to virtual extinction well before 1900. Native oyster reefs were ecologically extinct by the 1950s along most European coastlines and in many bays well before that. These shellfish reefs are among the most endangered coastal habitats, but they receive some of the least protection. Nowadays less than 15% of the European coastline is considered in 'good' condition. Those fragments of native habitats that remain are under continued threat, and their management is not generally informed by adequate knowledge of their distribution and status. There are many policies and directives aimed at reducing and reversing these losses but their overall positive benefits have been low. Further neglecting this long history of habitat loss and transformation may ultimately compromise the successful management and future sustainability of those few fragments of native and semi-native coastal habitats that remain in Europe.

Alfaro, A.
Benthic macro-invertebrate community composition within a mangrove/seagrass estuary in northern New Zealand
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Journal, 2006
Abstract: In the tropics and sub-tropics, estuarine environments with mangrove and seagrass habitats provide important structures and resources for diverse communities of benthic organisms. However, temperate estuarine habitats, especially in mangrove areas, may differ significantly in their community associations and interactions. The community composition of benthic macro-fauna was investigated within temperate Matapouri Estuary, northern New Zealand. The density and distribution of fauna were sampled within six distinctive habitats (mangrove stands, pneumatophore zones, Zostera beds, channels, banks, and sand flats), within four sampling events between December 2002 and September 2003. Each type of habitat was replicated seven times within different locations in the estuary. Counts of all infauna and epifauna within four replicate cores were recorded from each habitat and location. Multidimensional scaling plots were used to identify differences in structure and composition of assemblages among habitats and locations within each sampling event. Results from these benthic samples indicate that Matapouri Estuary has a high overall biodiversity, with distinctive faunal assemblages found within different habitats, and some seasonal variations also apparent. In terms of both number of individuals and taxa per unit area, seagrass beds had the highest numbers and mangrove areas had the lowest numbers, with all other habitats in between. Some locations were found to support a high diversity of organisms across habitats, while other locations had high densities of a few species only. Several physical and biological differences between tropical/sub-tropical and New Zealand's temperate mangrove habitats are put forth as potential reasons for the lower density and diversity of the benthic component observed herein. Further ongoing studies aim to elucidate the structure and interactions within food webs in this estuarine ecosystem.

 Allibone, R; David, B; Hitchmough, R; Jellyman, D; Ling, N; Ravenscroft, P; Waters, J.
Conservation status of New Zealand freshwater fish
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2010
Abstract: The threat status of 74 freshwater and estuarine fish present in New Zealand was determined. Fifty-one native taxa were ranked of which 67% were considered Threatened or At Risk. A single species was classified as Extinct, the New Zealand grayling, which has not been observed since the 1920s. Four taxa were classified in the highest threat category, Nationally Critical, and a further 10 taxa as Threatened (Nationally Endangered or Nationally Vulnerable). Twenty taxa were ranked in the At Risk group with the majority ranked as Declining. Endemic galaxiids (Galaxiidae) dominated the Threatened and At Risk taxa. The majority (68%) belonged to the Galaxias genus, comprising 81% of recognised taxa in this genus and all five species in the genus Neochanna were also ranked as Threatened or At Risk. In addition to 51 native taxa, a further three fish species were considered colonists and 20 introduced species were classified as naturalised, although two of these are considered rare. The majority of the Threatened species occur in the Canterbury and Otago regions where a suite of rare non-migratory galaxiids exist. Threat mechanisms that were identified as causal in the decline of freshwater fish species were the impact of introduced fish species, declining water quality, effects of water abstraction, loss of habitat via land-use change and land-use activities, and river modifications.
Anderlini, V.C; Wear, R.G.
The effects of sewage and natural seasonal disturbances on benthic macrofaunal communities in Fitzroy Bay, Wellington, New Zealand
Marine Pollution Bulletin Journal, 1992
Abstract: Benthic macrofauna were sampled on 6 occasions over a 14 month period from Fitzroy Bay, Wellington, New Zealand to assess the effects of an existing sewage effluent discharge on these organisms and to determine natural seasonal fluctuations in community structure within the vicinity of a proposed new ocean outfall. Results of Abundance/Biomass Comparison (ABC), Cluster, and Multi-Dimensional Scaling analyses indicated that only benthic communities within a 500 m radius of the present sewage outfall were affected by the discharge. However, seasonal data indicated that most sites within Fitzroy Bay were disturbed on at least one occasion during the sampling period. The data suggest that ABC analyses should be conducted over several seasons to provide a more accurate assessment of pollution-induced and/or natural physical and biological disturbance.

Anderson, D.M; Gilbert, P.M; Burkholder, J.M.
Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication: Nutrient Sources, Composition and Consequences
Estuaries and Coasts Journal, 2002
Abstract: Although algal blooms, including those considered toxic or harmful, can be natural phenomena, the nature of the global problem of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has expanded both in extent and its public perception over the last several decades. Of concern, especially for resource managers, is the potential relationship between HABs and the accelerated eutrophication of coastal waters from human activities. We address current insights into the relationships between HABs and eutrophication, focusing on sources of nutrients, known effects of nutrient loading and reduction, new understanding of pathways of nutrient acquisition among HAB species, and relationships between nutrients and toxic algae. Through specific, regional, and global examples of these various relationships, we offer both an assessment of the state of understanding, and the uncertainties that require future research efforts. The sources of nutrients potentially stimulating algal blooms include sewage, atmospheric deposition, groundwater flow, as well as agricultural and aquaculture runoff and discharge. On a global basis, strong correlations have been demonstrated between total phosphorus inputs and phytoplankton production in freshwaters, and between total nitrogen input and phytoplankton production in estuarine and marine waters. There are also numerous examples in geographic regions ranging from the largest and second largest U.S. mainland estuaries (Chesapeake Bay and tile Albemarle-Panllico Estuarine System), to the Inland Sea of Japan, the Black Sea, and Chinese coastal waters, where increases in nutrient loading have been linked with the development of large biomass blooms, leading to anoxia and even toxic or harmful impacts on fisheries resources, ecosystems, and human health or recreation. Many of these regions have witnessed reductions in phytoplankton biomass (as chlorophyll a) or HAB incidence when nutrient controls were put in place. Shifts in species composition have often been attributed to changes in nutrient supply ratios, primarily N:P or N:Si. Recently this concept has been extended to include organic forms of nutrients, and an elevation in the ratio of dissolved organic carbon to dissolved organic nitrogen (DOC:DON) has been observed during several recent blooms. The physiological strategies by which different groups of species acquire their nutrients have become better understood, and alternate modes of nutrition such as heterotrophy and in mixotrophy are now recognized as common among HAB species. Despite our increased understanding of the pathways by which nutrients are delivered to ecosystems and the pathways by which they are assimilated differentially by different groups of species, the relationships between nutrient delivery and the development of blooms and their potential toxicity or harmfulness remain poorly understood. Many factors such as algal species presence/ abundance, degree of flushing or water exchange, weather conditions, and presence and abundance of grazers contribute to the success of a given species at a given point in time. Similar nutrient loads do not have the same impact in different environments or in the same environment at different points in time. Eutrophication is one of several mechanisms by which harmful algae appear to be increasing in extent and duration in many locations. Although important, it is not the only explanation for blooms or toxic outbreaks. Nutrient enrichment has been strongly linked to stimulation of some harmful species, but for others it has not been an apparent contributing factor. The overall effect of nutrient over enrichment on harmful algal species is clearly species specific.
Anderson, M.J; Hewitt, J.E; Ford, R.B; Thrush, S.F.
Regional Models of Benthic Ecosystem Health: Predicting Pollutant Gradients from Biological Data
NIWA and the Department of Statistics & Leigh Marine Laboratory (University of Auckland), 2006
Abstract: The purpose of this work was to develop new regional models of benthic ecosystem health for sheltered intertidal soft-sediment habitats on the basis of new and existing biological, chemical and physical data. More particularly, we wished to obtain a model whereby biological data from a new or monitored site could be used to classify that site in terms of its relative health. Data assembled from sites across the Auckland Region included mean abundances of 102 taxa from 84 sites, some of which were sampled in multiple years (from 2002-2005), yielding 95 samples. Models were developed using 81samples, with 14 samples being reserved to provide independent model validation. Physical data included grain size fractions and measures of furthest and closest wind exposure. Chemical data consisted of measures of concentrations (mg/kg) of copper, lead and zinc from the total sediment sample (< 500 μm) and also from weak acid extraction of the mud fraction (< 63 μm). The latter is generally considered a measure of bioavailable metals.

Arnold, A.
A review of public attitudes towards marine issues within and beyond New Zealand
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 2004
Abstract: This paper reviews current research on public attitudes towards marine issues and considers the New Zealand Department of Conservation’s future research priorities in this area. The paper is based on a review of previous research undertaken by the Department and other local and central government agencies within and beyond New Zealand and discussions on research priorities with Department staff. For each study the key research findings and research methodologies are discussed. Possible research priorities for the Department and recommendations for further research on public attitudes towards marine issues are then outlined.

Auckland Regional Council
New Zealand's Mangroves
Auckland Regional Council, n.d
Abstract: This booklet summarises some of the key findings of a detailed technical review of the information we have on mangroves in New Zealand. One main conclusion reached is that there is considerable variation in their productivity, their role in local foodwebs, the diversity of animals and plants that they support, and their response to changing conditions in the estuaries and harbours in which they live. Another main conclusion is that many gaps remain in our knowledge of mangroves and their ecological role in New Zealand. Appropriate approaches to mangrove management need to be considered on a case-by-case basis because of the remaining gaps in knowledge, and also because mangrove characteristics and their ecological roles differ from location to location.
 Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council
Sediment quality guidelines
Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture, and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, 2000
Abstract: The ANZECC guidelines are the Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality. Chapter 8.4 of the ANZECC Guidelines presented the sediment quality guidelines which are of interest to determining where data that determines safe and harmful levels of pollutants in sediment was developed from. The guidelines summarize the international approaches to sediment quality and also have a summary of how reliable the data is that forms the guidelines. The guidelines point out the difference between point source and diffuse inputs. Point source inputs are those from streams or storm water drains while diffuse inputs are those derived from aerial deposition and land runoff. Among the different types of marine sediment that occur, the fine clay/silt fraction is most likely to adsorb organic and heavy metal pollutants. This is due to the typically high organic matter content of this type of sediment. In contrast sands and coarse rock material do not tend to adsorb these pollutants. It is important then, that measurements of pollutants take this in to account and standardize pollutant readings to the fraction of fine clay/silt in the sample. The guidelines note the importance of establishing background levels of organics and metals in an area. This is because types of soil and physical processes such as volcanic activity and geothermal activity mean that show areas naturally have a certain occurring of metals or organics. The half-live of the chemical is also important, as this helps to determine how the chemical will degrade. The chemical may degrade into different compounds which can have different impacts than the original. There are different ways in which a safe level of a pollutant can be determined. One of these ways that this can be determined is by using the apparent effects threshold. This is the sediment concentration above which biological effects are observed at the statistically significant level (p>0.05). This level of statistical significance means that there is 95% chance that the biological effects will occur and can be contributed to the impact of the contaminant rather than to chance. The screening-level concentrations approach identifies two levels. A low level where the lowest toxic effects start to be apparent and a severe/high level in which these concentrations could severely harm and eliminate most of the organisms.

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council
Aquaculture and human consumption of aquatic foods
Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council; Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, 2000
Abstract: Aquaculture involves the production of food for human consumption, fry for recreational fishing and natural fisheries, ornamental fish and plants for the aquarium trade, raw materials for energy and biochemicals, and a number of items for the fashion  industry. Poor water quality can result in loss of production of culture species and can lower the quality of the end product. Aquaculture also has the potential to have an impact on water quality downstream. The guidelines do not deal with effluent water quality from aquaculture activities but aquaculturists need to manage their operations with downstream water quality in mind. Guidelines for triggers in aquaculture stock are in the following categories: physic-chemical stressors, inorganic toxicants, organic toxicants and pathogens and biological contaminants. In addition, the Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) develops and administers uniform (statutory) standards for chemical contamination in foods (including aquatic foods). These are enforced through legislation (unlike the ANZECC Water Quality Guidelines). In addition to those for chemical contaminants, guidelines are provided for viral contaminants, bacterial contaminants, natural toxins, parasites and off-flavour compounds (which cause tainting of aquatic animal flesh).

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC)
Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality 2000
Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council; Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, 2000
Abstract: The introduction summaries the main features of the ANZECC Guidelines to help readers understand and use the documents.The main objective of the guidelines is to "provide an authoritative guide for setting water quality objectives required to sustain current, or likely future, environmental values (uses) for natural and semi-natural water resources in Australia and New Zealand". The guidelines provide government and the general community (particularly catchment/water managers, regulators, industry, consultants and community groups) with a sound set of tools for assessing and managing ambient water quality in natural and semi-natural water resources. They are not meant to be applied directly to recycled water quality, contaminant levels in discharges from industry, mixing zones, or storm water quality, unless storm water systems are regarded as having conservation value. Local and regional jurisdictions are encouraged to use these national guidelines to formulate their own regional guidelines or specific water quality objectives. The guidelines are not mandatory. The guidelines have seven chapters. The first two introduce the guidelines and give a framework on how to apply them. Chapters three through six are specific to different types of water quality management, namely aquatic ecosystems, primary industries, recreational water quality and aesthetics and drinking water respectively. The last chapter is entitled Monitoring and Assessment. It gives advice on collecting and analysing data for the different indicators, over a range of scenarios and makes recommendations on the number and mix of indicator types that should be considered. These chapters are followed by references, appendices and an index. All chapters can be applied to Tauranga Harbour and its catchments.

 Bailey, Conner; Jentoft, Svein; Sinclair, Peter R.
Aquacultural development : social dimensions of an emerging industry
Westview Press, 1996
Abstract: In this volume, an international group of contributors explores the newly emerging aquaculture industry. Focusing on the social and environmental dimensions of aquacultural development in both industrialized and non-industrialized nations, they examine issues of social equity, user-group conflict, environmental impacts of production, and mediating role of the state. They also discuss aquaculture's role in development activity - especially in sustainable development, where it can enhance community viability, coherence, and solidarity. Asserting the need for careful planning and recognizing impending political and moral choices, the contributors assess the decision making process for public authorities and development agencies and consider the social consequences of these decisions. Policymakers responsible for promoting and managing this growing industry will find this volume invaluable as they begin to research and design appropriate institutional structures. In addition, scholars interested in the overall adoption and diffusion of new technologies will find here a rich source of information about a system that shares attributes with but also differs significantly from agricultural and fisheries production systems.
Baker,C.S; Chilvers,B.L; Constantine, R; DuFresne,S; Mattlin,R.H; Helden,A; Hitchmough, R.
Conservation status of New Zealand marine mammals (suborders Cetacea and Pinnipedia)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2010
Abstract: This study re evaluated the conservation status of NZ marine mammals using the 2008 version of the NZ Threat Classification System, based on several data sources including those used for the previous listing, public submissions and expert opinion. It considered all marine mammal taxa recorded from the NZ Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) since 1800.  Compared to previous listing, no species was considered to have an improved status and the threat status of two species worsened: the NZ sea lion was up-listed to Nationally Critical, and the bottlenose dolphin to Nationally Endangered.

Barnabé, G.
Aquaculture: biology and ecology of cultured species
E. Horwood, 1994
Abstract: This book covers the history of modern aquaculture, the aquatic environment and the physical factors that need to be considering in successful management of aquaculture; mollusc culture; crustacean farming; and aquaculture diseases.

Barnes, H. M.
Collaboration in community action: a successful partnership between indigenous communities and researchers
Health Promotion International, 2000
Abstract: New Zealand Maori, in common with the indigenous peoples of many countries, face considerable alcohol-related problems. Although a number of initiatives have been implemented to deal with alcohol issues, these have often had limited involvement from Maori and consequently have been more effective for non-Maori. This paper examines a collaborative project between researchers at the Alcohol & Public Health Research Unit and two Maori organizations, Te Whanau o Waipareira Trust in West Auckland and the Huakina Development Trust in South Auckland. The 3-year project evaluated two community action programmes which aimed to prevent alcohol-related traffic crashes amongst Maori. The programmes were run by the Trusts and were able to integrate research-based knowledge with community knowledge, resulting in a richness of strategies and a level of success that would not have been likely in an imposed project.

Barr, Neill. G.
Aspects of Nitrogen Metabolism in the Green Alga Ulva; Developing an Indicator of Seawater Nitrogen Loading
University of Auckland, 2007
Abstract: The following research has focused on the utility of Ulva as an indicator of seawater nitrogen loading. Evaluation was made in three ways: 1) Observation of large-scale geographic variation in nitrogen status in natural populations around New Zealand in summer and winter, 2) Laboratory-based experimental assessment of the biochemical responses of N-indices in Ulva to nitrogen enrichment, and 3) Culturing standardized test-Ulva under low nutrient conditions which could be deployed into a variety of field situations.

Barrett, N. S; Buxton, C. D; Edgar, G. J.
Changes in invertebrate and macroalgal populations in Tasmanian marine reserves in the decade following protection.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2009
Abstract: Densities of macrobenthic invertebrates and macro-algae in four Tasmanian 'no-take' marine protected areas (MPAs) were monitored annually for 10 years following MPA establishment, with changes compared to those at external (fished) reference locations. Fishing substantially influenced the population characteristics of many species, including altering the mean size and abundance of rock lobsters and the abundance of prey species such as urchins and abalone. Strong declines in abundances of purple urchins and abalone within the largest MPA at Maria Island indicate likely indirect effects related to protection of predators from fishing. The two smallest MPAs (ca. 1 km coastal span) generated few detectable changes. Our results affirm the importance of long-term monitoring and the value of MPAs, when sufficiently large, as reference areas for determining and understanding ecosystem effects of fishing in the absence of historical baseline data.

Batstone, C; Elmetri, I; Taylor, M; Sinner, J; Clarke, S
Mapping the values of New Zealand's coastal waters. 2. Economic values
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand, 2009
Abstract: Introduced species are recognised as one of the greatest threats to natural environments worldwide. New Zealand’s ability to assess and manage these risks is significantly hampered by a lack of detailed information on the resources that should be protected: Which species are of greatest concern? What values are at risk? Where should surveillance monies be concentrated? Which incursion can or should be responded to? To help address these questions and thereby improve risk management in the marine environment, MAF Biosecurity New Zealand (MAFBNZ) commissioned research to map the economic, environmental, social and cultural values associated with New Zealand’s coastal and marine environments.

Baxter, A.
Baseline Survey of Waimapu Estuary, Tauranga, New Zealand
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic,1993
Abstract: Waimapu Estuary, an inlet of Tauranga Harbour and situated alongside State Highway 2, is biologically a productive ecosystem incorporating estuarine plants, shellfish and finfish and bird species. A comprehensive baseline survey of this estuary was undertaken to allow future monitoring of human impacts. Results of this initial survey indicate that the estuary sustains varied flora and fauna and contains water which is of reasonable quality.

Bay of Plenty Connections
A World-Class Aquaculture Region: A Growth Plan for the Bay of Plenty
Bay of Plenty Connections, 2009
Abstract: This report is written by a Regional Governance Group consisting of three business leaders, three representatives from each of the sub-regional Economic Development Agencies (EDAs), a local/central government representative, and the Group Manager of Strategic Development, Bay of Plenty Regional Council, whose role is overseeing the economic development of the region. This report outlines this group’s strategic plan for "growing a world-class, integrated and sustainable aquaculture industry in the Bay of Plenty with export sales of $250 million by 2025".

 Bay of Plenty Connections
Bay of Plenty Aquaculture Strategy - A Product of the Bay of Connections Economic Strategy
Bay of Plenty Connections, 2009
Abstract: Four regional aquaculture forums have been held since 2006, involving stakeholders from industry, research and science, iwi, training and education providers and local and central government. In November 2008 a Forum was held to get initial comments and input for the proposed Aquaculture strategy. During mid-2009 an Aquaculture Advisory Group was established to guide the development of this strategy. This group is composed of representatives from industry, local, regional and central government agencies and research institutes.Aquaculture is one of 13 key focus areas for the region’s growth and development under the region’s economic development strategy hence the development of this strategy. The aim of the strategy is “to grow an integrated and sustainable aquaculture industry in the Bay of Plenty with export sales of $250 million by 2025”. Nine key opportunities (the authors believe) aquaculture in BOP will bring are listed. The report then goes on to state that the BOP is well positioned to play a key role in aquaculture growth, both nationally and internationally. A geographic and demographic overview is given and discusses how aquaculture has the potential to boost the economy of the region. Indicative economic potential estimates are given and a brief description of the two largest aquaculture sites in the region (and country), namely a 3 800ha mussel farm off the coast of Opotiki and a 4 009 ha site in Otamarakau. Once these are both fully operational (they weren’t at the time of publishing of this strategy), the total of aquaculture space in BOP will be around one third of the total aquaculture space in New Zealand. Following this, the significant amounts of work already done by stakeholders to investigate the potential of the region for aquaculture are listed. This includes processing consent applications and regional forums, aquaculture-specific research and investment in teaching and research resources. The BOP Regional Council’s research findings indicate that BOP’s waters are among the most productive in New Zealand and opportunities exist for large-scale offshore mussel farms. Furthermore, other aquaculture activities using the waterways and lakes such as eel farming are noted.

Bay of Plenty Harbour Board
Port of Tauranga: Port information
Bay of Plenty Harbour Board, 1986
Abstract: The report provides general information about the Port of Tauranga, location, administration, history, community, and future development.

Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Introducing Tauranga Moana (The Tauranga Harbour)
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 1997

Abstract: The aim of this booklet is to help readers increase their knowledge and understanding of the harbour by discussing the current (1997) issues affecting the harbour and how they are addressed by the Bay of Plenty Regional Council and other organisations who help manage the harbour. The chapters include:

  • Tauranga Harbour and its Catchment;
  • Settlement History;
  • The Changing Face of the Land;
  • A Harbour with Two Faces (entrances);
  • A Natural, Healthy and Stable Ecology;
  • A Recreational Paradise;
  • The Issues (covering ecology, water quality, natural character, recreation, reclamations and structures, pests and residential development)
  • Sustainable Management of the Harbour;
  • Coastal Management in the Tauranga Harbour and Who Does What;
  • Resource Consents and Coastal Permits;
  • What is Being Done?

Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Bay of Plenty Regional Coastal Environment Plan Volume 1
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2003
Abstract: This plan incorporates the Regional Coastal Plan (as required by the RMA 1991 to be prepared by regional councils) as well as issues pertaining to the landward part of the coastal environment. Section 2.1 defines the geographic coverage of this plan. The purpose of this plan is to enable Environment Bay of Plenty to promote the sustainable management of the natural and physical resources of the Bay of Plenty coastal environment.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Farm Dairy Fact Sheet no. 2: Land Based Systems
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2003
Abstract: This is a factsheet that discusses land-based effluent disposal options for (dairy) farms, including pond soakage, land soakage and pasture irrigation. It also gives guidelines for managing these systems.

Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Bay of Plenty Regional Navigation and Safety Bylaws
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2004
Abstract: These navigation and safety bylaws were created to ensure safe use of the harbours, rivers, lakes and coastal waters of the Bay of Plenty.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Bay of Plenty Regional Navigation and Safety Bylaws
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2010
Abstract: These navigation and safety bylaws were created to ensure safe use of the harbours, rivers, lakes and coastal waters of the Bay of Plenty.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council 
Bay of Plenty Regional Air Plan
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2006
Abstract:This report provides for the sustainable management of discharges of contaminants into the air in the whole of the Bay of Plenty Region. Within this plan is mentioned the public’s concern of the odours released by sea lettuce in the Tauranga region.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Bay of Plenty AMA Remote Sensing Report
Bay of Plenty Regional Council; NIWA; ASR Ltd, 2006
Abstract: A study of the Bay of Plenty’s coastal shelf waters was undertaken to collect data for the support of modelling and estimating the sustainability and carrying capacity of aquaculture. The study included physical and chemical analysis of the waters, quantification of phytoplankton communities, current measurements and temperature profiling of the water column and the use of remote sensing to provide a synopsis of seasonal and spatial patterns of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentrations. This report presents results gained from development and processing of remote sensing data.

Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Bathing Suitability Report
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2007
Abstract: Environment Bay of Plenty annually undertakes a water quality survey of popular recreational waters over the warmer months. The survey serves to monitor and identify the risk to public health from faecal contamination within waterways popular for recreational activities. Monitoring information can then be used by public health services, territorial authorities and the public to assess the risk of using these waters, as well as providing information on the potential or existing risk. Agencies involved in the monitoring and reporting on recreational waters are the regional council, territorial authorities and District Health Boards and Medical Officer of Health. The survey monitors aspects of the water quality of water bodies in line with the Regional Policy Strategy, the Regional Coastal Plan, Regional Water and Land Plan, and Ten Year Plan. It also provides a basis to assess the effects of discrete discharges and diffuse run-off from various land-uses. The main objective of this report is to examine and report on the suitability of the 27 freshwater, 30 lake and 46 marine sites in the Bay of Plenty region for contact recreation. Shellfish monitoring results over the past few years is also reported.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Water Quality Classification (Map)
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2008
Abstract: A 1:50 000 Sheet U14 of Tauranga water quality classification.

Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Operative Bay of Plenty Regional Water and Land Plan
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2008
Abstract: Spatial Coverage: The regional plan covers all the area within the Bay of Plenty Regional Council boundary, as seen in Map 1, excluding the Coastal Marine Area. The Bay of Plenty Regional Coastal Environment Plan has defined the boundary between the Coastal Marine Area and the land/freshwater zone. This boundary often extends upstream into the mouths of rivers.
Resource Coverage: The regional plan covers the following natural and physical resources in the Bay of Plenty:
  1. Land (including soil);
  2. Water (including rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands, modified watercourses and groundwater);
  3. Geothermal resources in the Bay of Plenty, excluding geothermal resources covered by the Rotorua Geothermal Regional Plan2; and
  4. Physical resources associated with the use of water resources (e.g. structures in, on, under or over the bed of a river, stream or lake).

The purpose of this regional plan is to achieve the following;

  1. Promote the sustainable management of land, water and geothermal resources.
  2. Achieve the integrated management of land, water and geothermal resources.
  3. Maintain or improve environmental quality in the Bay of Plenty region.
  4. Protect existing high quality environments and resources.
  5. Protect sensitive receiving environments.
  6. Sustain the life-supporting capacity of soil, water and ecosystems.
  7. Maintain or enhance the ecological, Maori cultural, recreational, natural character and landscape values of land, water and geothermal resources.
  8. Establish appropriate environmental standards to achieve (c) to (f). This includes ensuring instream minimum flow requirements are maintained in rivers and streams.
  9. Address the adverse environmental effects of the use and development of land, water and geothermal resources.
  10. Allow for the use and development of land, water and geothermal resources where it is consistent with (a) to (g).
  11. Enable people and communities to provide for their social, economic and cultural wellbeing, while achieving (a) to (i).
  12. Work with communities to promote community participation and interest in the management of natural and physical resources in the Bay of Plenty region.

Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Sea lettuce: Tauranga Harbour fact sheet
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2009
Abstract: This is a two page factsheet outlining what sea lettuce is, why it is a problem in Tauranga Harbour, why it grows here, monitoring of sea lettuce blooms and mitigation actions being taken by the regional and district councils towards sea lettuce blooms in Tauranga Harbour.

Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Tauranga Harbour our special place Te ora o te iwi
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2009

Abstract: This booklet provided a general description of Tauranga Harbour. It covered a wide range of topics including the marine life in the harbour, the role it played in the economy and as a place for recreation. The booklet described the harbour as a home to thousands of plants, shellfish, birds and fish. It documented that estuarine areas of the harbour were important nursery and spawning grounds for many marine and freshwater species, and that the health of the harbour’s shellfish in the harbour depended on the quality of the water. Through presenting facts, and general knowledge of the harbour, it increased local people’s awareness of human impacts on the harbour. For example, the booklet presented a story of declining seagrass beds in the harbour, which was associated with the subdivision of land and clearance of bush in the harbour catchment. At the end, the booklet identified responsibilities of government agencies for caring of the harbour, including Bay of Plenty Regional Council, Western Bay of Plenty District Council, Ministry of Fisheries, the Department of Conservation, and their contact details.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
The Chairman and Councillors; Regulation Monitoring & Operations Committee
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2009
Abstract:This is a report from the Regulation Monitoring and Operations Committee of the Bay of Plenty Regional Council. Within this report is the report to the Council on the results of the recent monitoring of the levels of hydrogen sulphide gas at 2 locations within Tauranga where sea lettuce has accumulated (Ongare & Ngakautuakina Point).

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Annual Report and Consolidated Financial Statements for the Year Ended 30 June 2009
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2009
Abstract: This is the Bay of Plenty Regional Council's Annual Report for the year ended 30 June 2009. It highlights projects the Regional Council has been involved in for the year including - Trials to mechanically remove mangroves from Tauranga Harbour

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Proposed Bay of Plenty Regional Policy Statement
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2010
Abstract:This is the proposed Regional Councils RPS 2010. The Proposed Bay of Plenty Regional Policy Statement (‘the Statement’) promotes the sustainable management of the Bay of Plenty region's natural and physical resources. This is the second such statement prepared for the Bay of Plenty region under the Resource Management Act 1991 (‘the Act’). Since the commencement of the Act, a lot has been learned about what is effective resource management and what is not. This experience is reflected in the significantly revised format and the more targeted and directive approach of this Statement. The outcomes – the objectives and the monitoring indicators in part four – are the measures against which the success of this framework will be measured.The Statement is in five parts. Part one contains introductory and explanatory material about the structure and purpose of the Statement in relation to the purpose of the Act. It also addresses the philosophy behind the Statement and discussion of the concept ‘sustainable region’. Each chapter in Part two presents background information on the chapter topic and outlines the significant issues associated with each topic. The issues are followed by a summary table of the objectives, policies for the issues and objectives, and methods to implement the policies. Part three is divided into two sections. The first contains the policies and the second sets out the methods of implementation. The policies section is grouped according to the topic under which the policy was originally drafted (e.g., coastal environment). Within these topic groups policies are divided into four types being those that provide broad direction to regional and district plans, those that give specific direction for consideration in plans and consents processes, policies that allocate responsibilities and those that provide guidance. A brief explanation of each policy is also presented. The methods section is divided into two main groups being directive or guiding methods. Part four sets out the procedures for monitoring the efficiency and effectiveness of the policies and methods of the Statement. It also gives the environmental results anticipated from implementation of all policies and methods. Part five presents the principal reasons for adopting the objectives, policies and methods set out in the Statement.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Tauranga Harbour Restoration - Sediment Action Plan DRAFT
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2010
Abstract: This draft sediment action plan sets out existing and planned policy and operational work to address sedimentation issues within Tauranga Harbour. It also looks at related matters around protecting biodiversity and natural character values within the harbour and its catchments. It presents current and planned operational work being undertaken by Bay of Plenty Regional Council in an integrated manner.This draft plan does not address water quality, recreation/access and marine flora and fauna issues for the harbour.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Environment Bay of Plenty's Ten Year Plan 2009-2019
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2009
Abstract: The Ten Year Plan describes what the Bay of Plenty Regional Council (BOPRC) proposes to do over the next ten years and is reviewed every three years. As a result, it sets out in detail what BOPRC plans to do over the next three years in detail, while the following seven years activities are outlined. It is grouped into the following categories/chapters: introduction, community outcomes, groups of activities, regional leadership, natural environment, sustainable development and infrastructure, corporate services, financial overview and summary, financial and non financial policies and funding impact statement.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Media Release 'New way of managing mangrove mulch'
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2011
Abstract: Media release about a trial of a new way to manage mulch after the mechanical removal of mangroves at Waikareao Eastuary. The trial involved the purpose-built mechanical mangrove mulcher being followed by a beach groomer. The beach groomer collects the mulch, which is then taken off-site as green waste to be composted. The purpose of the removal of the mulch after mechanical mangrove removal is to help lessen the anoxic conditions that result from mechanical mangrove removal. This release does not mention anything about the impact that the beach groomer itself has on the estuary bed.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Mangroves: Tauranga Harbour fact sheet 3
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, n.d
Abstract: This is a two page factsheet outlining what mangroves are, why they are important, numbers in Tauranga Harbour, why they are viewed as a problem (by some), and mitigation actions being taken by the regional and council towards the spread of mangroves in Tauranga Harbour.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Concrete Information Sheet
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, n.d
Abstract: This fact sheet identifies that the lime in cement is an inorganic pollutant which alters the pH of waterways and is toxic to aquatic life. The lime in cement dissolves into water making that water alkaline (pH 11-13). This can burn fish and kill other aquatic organisms. Lime from cement can enter the waterways through concrete work. Operations that will cause pollution if the runoff enters the waterways are: concrete cutting, spills, washing equipment, disposing of unwanted concrete, and concrete dust. It should be noted that diluting concrete slurry is not a solution as this only increases the size of the problem as more water becomes contaminated. Procedures should be used to ensure that concrete, dust and waste water do not enter the storm water drains or directly run off into a stream.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Biosecurity: Pests in and around Tauranga Harbour, fact sheet 5
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, n.d
Abstract: This is a factsheet outlining the invasive species in and around the Tauranga Harbour, and also outlines what the Regional Council, DOC and Biosecurity NZ are currently doing to protect the harbour. It also gives some tips on what individuals can do to prevent pest invasion of the harbour, or if one wishes to report any suspicious finds.

 Bay of Plenty Regional Council and Tauranga District Council
Sea Lettuce and its Effect on our Harbours
Bay of Plenty Regional Council and Tauranga District Council, 1992
Abstract:This is a 4 page document that attempts to inform the public on 5 topic areas about sea lettuce. These topics include describing: what is sea lettuce? the sea lettuce life cycle, sea lettuce in nz - its distribution, its impact in the Bay of Plenty and noting what is being done about it. The pamphlet informs that studies are being undertaken jointly by the Bay of Plenty Regional Council, the Tauranga District Coucil, the University of Auckland and the Water Quality Centre, Ecosystems Division, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). The impacts fall into four broad categories: water quality and ecological changes, loss of aesthetic and recreational values, chronic and intermittent health hazards and impact on commercial port activities - shipping.

 Bay of Plenty Times
Shellfish Ban Continues
Bay of Plenty Times, 2010
Abstract: Short article stating that the shellfish ban (all bi-valves, as well as cat's eyes and kina) continues across the Bay of Plenty coastline, including the Tauranga Harbour.

 Bay of Plenty Wetlands Forum
Wetland restoration guide
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, Department of Conservation and Fish and Game, 2007
Abstract: This guide provides a description of different types of wetland and a step- by-step guide to starting, running and maintaining a wetlands restoration project. It also has a list of links (BOP specific) where you can get further information on or relating to wetlands.

 Beadel, S.; Harfoot, R.; Shaw, W.B.; Bawden, R.
Tauranga Ecological District Phase 1 Protected Natural Areas Programme Report
Wildland Consultants Ltd, 2005
 Abstract: The Protected Natural Areas Programme (PNAP) was established in 1983 to address Section 3(1)(b) of the Reserves Act 1977: This report presents a summary of existing information on the physical nature of the Tauranga Ecological District and identifies what is needed to complete a protected natural areas programme survey of the ecological district.

Beadel, S.; Maseyk, F.; Garrick, A.; Pierce, R.; Bawden, R.; Honey, M.
Ecological Restoration and Enhancement of Waikaraka Estuary, Tauranga Harbour
Wildland Consultants Ltd, 2003
 Abstract: The Waikara Estuary is situated in the southern basin of Tauranga Harbour, southeast of Te Puna Estuary, near Te Puna. This is a low-energy estuary and is fed by Oturu Creek. Rapid changes in estuary morphology has occurred in recent history. This has been attributed to surrounding land use, particularly horticultural development. The Waikaraka Estuary Managers Group comprises a group of residents and landowners adjoining the estuary. The group has forged strong links with local government agencies (BOPRC & WBOPDC), the Landcare Trust and a crown research institute (NIWA). NIWA are also publishing a case study on managing estuaries and mangrove habitat. Manipulation of mangrove distribution is already underway in Waikaraka Estuary; a Master of Science thesis has also been conducted on sediment dynamics (Hope, 2002). The Waikaraka Estuary Managers would like to undertake ecological restoration of the Waikaraka Estuary margins and require the preparation of a restoration plan to identify opportunities for enhancing the natural values of the project area and actions required to restore the estuary margins. This report includes vegetation and habitat descriptions and a landform map. The future management is assessed in the context of the historical background of the site. Restoration options, a work plan and a comprehensive management plan including monitoring methods are provided. A list of flora and fauna species is also included.

 Beadel, S.; Renner, M.; Stephen, M.; Bawden, R.; Collins, L.; Honey, M.
Natural areas in Tauranga Ecological District
Wildland Consultants Ltd, 2008

 Beaumont, J.; Oliver, M.; MacDiarmid, A.
Mapping the Values of New Zealand's Coastal Waters: 1. Environmental Values
Biosecurity New Zealand, 2008
Abstract: An estimated 65,000 marine species and associated ecosystems around New Zealand deliver a wide range of environmental services that sustain considerable fishing, aquaculture and tourism industries as well as driving major biogeochemical processes. However, New Zealand’s marine ecosystems are increasingly at risk of, or already experiencing, threat from anthropogenic impacts. One the greatest threats are the introduction of non-indigenous species.

 Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner Ltd
Sewage Disposal Facilities for Welcome Bay
Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner Ltd, 1977
Abstract:This report was commissioned to investigate and detail the main features of the trunk sewage system which will be required to service Welcome Bay. Because the ultimate system has a high capital cost and a much greater capacity than required by the present (1977) stage of residential development, and will in turn create practical operating problems during the initial years of operation of the scheme, the report also suggests ways in which the long term scheme may be constructed in stages.

 Bell, R.
Port of Tauranga Model Study: Deepened Shipping Channel Proposal
Water Quality Centre, DSIR Consultancy Report No. 6127/1, 1991
Abstract: The Water Quality Centre (DSIR Marine and Freshwater) were approached on 15 October 1990 by the Port of Tauranga Limited (Engineering Division) to carry out further hydrodynamic model runs to determine the effects of a deepened shipping channel on current patterns and velocities in Tauranga Harbour and the entrance area. Essentially the proposal is to deepen and widen the Port channels and approach channels to achieve an all-tide (i.e. at both Low and High tides) draft of at least 11.7 metres.

 Bell, R.
Port of Tauranga Model Study: Sulphur Point Wharf Extensions
NIWA Consultancy Report No. POT 002/1, 1994
Abstract: In July 1994 NIWA were commissioned by the Port of Tauranga Limited to carry out additional runs of the Tauranga Harbour hydrodynamic model. The main purpose was to predict the effects of an extension of the Sulphur Point wharf, and its associated dredged shipping channel, on the current patterns and velocities within Tauranga Harbour. Changes in the hydrodynamics were also analysed to infer sediment transport pathways. Essentially the proposal is to extend the existing 600 m Sulphur Point Wharf by 170 m and 250 m at the north and south ends respectively. This will require a dredged area (5.9 ha) of 12.9 m draft at the southern end extending a further 250 m southwards along Stella Passage from the terminus of the existing shipping channel dredged in 1992. A separate model simulation was also carried out for possible future dredging of the lower Otumoetai Channel.The calibrated hydrodynamic models set up during the 1983-85 Tauranga Harbour Study (Barnett,1985) and the 1990-91 Shipping Channel Study (Bell, 1991) were used as the starting point for the additional model runs discussed in this report. Possible effects on sedimentation and sediment transport due to the additional dredging are concurrently being investigated by Prof. Terry Healy (Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Waikato).

Bell, R.; Goring, D.; Gorman, R.; Hicks, M.; Hurran, H.; Ramsay, D.
Impact of climate change on the coastal margins of the Bay of Plenty
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA), 2006
Abstract: Environment Bay of Plenty have commissioned NIWA to assess potential climate change impacts on the drivers of coastal hazards that may affect the coastal margin of the Bay of Plenty region over the coming 50 to 100 years. This is the second phase of a climate change impact study and builds on the first phase study report: The Climate of the Bay of Plenty: Past and Future? (Griffiths et al, 2003) prepared for Environment Bay of Plenty. The primary focus of the study is to assess changes and trends in the "drivers" of coastal physical processes and hazards, and assess the potential impacts these changes or trends may have on the coastal margin of the Bay of Plenty region.

 Bell, S.; Hicks, G.
Marine landscapes and faunal recruitment: A field test with seagrasses and copepods
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 1991
Abstract: The influence of plant landscapes on recruitment of meiofaunal copepods was investigated in a New Zealand seagrass bed (Pauatahanui Inlet, near Wellington). Artificial plant mimics were placed into sediments at levels equivalent to natural blade densities (100 units per 0.5 x 0.25 m plot) in a variety of experimental treatments and retrieved 3 or 5 d later. To assess the effect of plant arrangement on faunal recruitment, plots were established within a seagrass bed in areas clipped of vegetation with (1) natural vegetation immediately surrounding the experimental plot; (2) natural vegetation clipped up to 0.5 m from plot edges; and (3) vegetation clipped up to 1 m from plot edges. Outside the natural seagrass bed plots were established in unvegetated sediments 0.5 m from the edge of the bed. Additionally, mimics were placed into plots 0.5 m from the edge of the bed which had sediment surfaces covered by plastic sheeting to determine whether recruitment onto plant mimics was from underlying sediments or from outside plots. Density of total copepods was highest on plant mimics with vegetation immediately adjacent to clipped areas inside the natural seagrass bed after 5 d. Densities of total copepods on mimics placed outside the bed were 5x higher than those inside the bed and the covering of sediment significantly reduced recruitment. The dominant copepod species, Bulbamphiascus sp., recruited to mimics irrespective of sediment border and probably invaded mimics from underlying sediments, although this was not true for other common species. While plant arrangement may influence recruitment of some copepod species, altering access to a source pool had a much greater effect on copepod densities on plant mimics.

 Belliss, S. E.; McNeill, S. J.
The ERS oil-spill research project in New Zealand: demonstrations to the commercial market.
Landcare Research, 2000
Abstract: In New Zealand, the best way to show the potential advantages of satellite-based mapping and monitoring is first to carry out applications-oriented research on the problems, thus demonstrating the advantages to the stakeholders. Current research concerns the practicality of using C-band SAR data to map and monitor discharge events, especially oil discharges, in selected New Zealand harbours and shipping lanes. An important feature from the market's perspective has been the possibility of investigating and prosecuting those responsible for illegal discharges. If successful, and once widely known, this monitoring capability could act as a strong disincentive to vessels contemplating discharge within New Zealand waters.

 Bergin, D.O.; Kimberly, M.O.
Rehabilitation of Coastal Foredunes in New Zealand Using Indigenous Sand-binding Species
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 1999
Abstract: Techniques for revegetation of foredunes in New Zealand were investigated using three indigenous sand-binding species: pingao, spinifex and sand tussock.Emphasis was placed on the development of guidelines from research trials designed to investigate the rehabilitation of dunes by planting nursery-raised seedlings. The aim was to promote successful techniques that will be of use to coastal managers and community-based interest groups such as Beach Care and Coast Care.

 Berkes, F.
Indigenous ways of knowing and the study of environmental change
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 2009
Abstract: Paradox of traditional knowledge. We start with a paradox. Many of the applications of traditional ecological knowledge (indigenous knowledge; matauranga Māori) are in the context of global environmental change. Traditional knowledge has been used to help understand such issues as climate change, and in this case, the conservation of tītī (Puffinus griseus or sooty shearwater), a species with a long migration route from New Zealand to the North Pacific and back. What could traditional knowledge possibly have to say about the sustainability of tītī populations, knowing that traditional knowledge does not (directly) track overall population numbers, migration routes, mortality at different life stages, fledgling success, and the various population parameters that biologists study to assess the status of a population? For that matter, what could traditional knowledge possibly have to say about climate change, given that indigenous elders have not previously experienced climate change, and that the changes being observed now are beyond the range of experience of traditional groups?

 Beveridge, A. E.; Christensen, B. R.; Smale, M. C.; Bergin, D. O.
Ecology, management and history of the forests of the Mamaku Plateau, New Zealand: An annotated bibliography
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 2009
Abstract: The forests of the Mamaku (or Patetere) Plateau, North Island, New Zealand, have a history of numerous land uses, and now exist as key enclaves for indigenous biota within the Bay of Plenty. Conservation focus is moving from single-species protection to a more comprehensive management approach, targeting multiple pests at key sites. This annotated bibliography covers a timeframe from the late 19th century onwards. It includes research and survey work on the forests, flora and fauna, with some information on soils, geology and hydrology. It also covers the history of logging and conversion of lo gged indigenous forest to pine plantations on land leased to forestry companies. Pododcarp restoration trials following cutover operations are outlined. This is the third compilation of annotated bibliographic information on the ecology and management of indigenous forest of the central North Island Volcanic Plateau, following publications on the Pureora Forest Park and Whirinaki Conservation Park. The bibliography is an ongoing project and its authors welcome updates, corrections or details of relevant articles.

 Bioresearches Ltd
Tuapiro Inlet water quality, 1974-1977
Unpublished report to the BOP Catchment Commission, 1977 

 Bioresearches Ltd
The effects of septic tank inflow on the quality of Tauranga Harbour waters
Unpublished report prepared for the BOPCC, 1977

 Bioresearches Ltd
The hearing application by Tauranga County Council for a right to discharge sewage effluent from an oxidation pond into Tauranga Harbour, Omokoroa, statement of evidence by M. F. Larcombe
Unpublished report prepared for the BOPCC, 1977

 Bioresearches Ltd
Tauranga Harbour Bridge ecological assessment
Bioresearches Ltd, 1984
Abstract: This report presents an assessment of the natural environment implications of the construction of a bridge across Tauranga Harbour between Tauranga City and Mount Maunganui, and forms part of an Environmental Impact Assessemnt required by teh Ministry of Transport. The following biological aspects are discussed: distribution, abundance and size of edible shellfish, with data on cockles/tuangi (Chione stutchburyi) and wedge shells (Tellina liliana); biology of areas to be reclaimed for the Eastern Approach Causeway, biology of area to be dredged, bird use and fish habitats. Additaionally the use of the area for the following resources: shellfish gateringm fishing swimming and boating. Finally the construction effects of the proposal is discussed.

 Bioresearches Ltd
Tauranga Harbour Bridge; resurvey of the cockle resource near the eastern causeway
Bioresearches Ltd, 1988
Abstract: A study of the edible shellfish resources of the area to be reclaimed for the Tauranga Harbour bridge approach causeway was carried out as part of the Impact Assessment undertaken in 1984, prior to final consent being granted for bridge construction. That study found that cockles were the major edible seafood resource in the proposed causeway area, and defined the abundance and size of cockles, and the extent of beds of cockles of attractive edible size.

 Bioresearches Ltd
Factors influencing the growth of the sea lettuce, Ulva in the south-eastern Tauranga Harbour
Bioresearches Ltd, 1989
Abstract: This report presents the results of the annual algal monitoring study, together with the results of a wider investigation of the distribution and abundance of green algae in south-eastern Tauranga Harbour, which was undertaken in response to public concerns about accumulations of algae on beaches in the Matua area. The aims of the wider study were: to document the distribution and abundance of green algae in the Tauranga area; to identify, if possible, the factors responsible for the observed distribution and abundance; to evaluate the importance of the Tauranga sewage effluent discharge as a factor influencing algal distribution and abundance and to comment on possible future trends and possible methods of algae control.

 Bioresearches Ltd
The growth of the sea lettuce, Ulva in south-eastern Tauranga Harbour
Bioresearches Ltd, 1991 
Abstract: This report presents the results of the annual algal monitoring study, together with the results of an investigation of the distribution and abundance of green algae in south-eastern Tauranga Harbour, which was a follow-up to the first such study undertaken in December 1989. The aims of the wider study were: to document the distribution and abundance of green algae in the Tauranga area and comment on differences between 1989 and 1990; to discuss the factors responsible for the observed distribution and abundance; to comment on possible future trends. The overall abundance of Ulva was less than that recorded in 1989. The Wairoa River was considered to be a major influence on algal growth between Tilby Point and Sulphur Point. The masses of Ulva present in 1988/89 have mostly disappeared 1990.

Birch, G.; Taylor, S
Possible biological significance of contaminated sediments in Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2002
Abstract: A comprehensive investigation of estuaries in central New South Wales has identified Port Jackson as the most contaminated waterway on the eastern seaboard of Australia. Extensive areas of the estuary are mantled in sediment containing high concentrations of a large range of metallic and organic contaminants. Although extensive, this database does not provide an effective basis for determining the potential adverse effects of chemicals on living resources. In the absence of any ecotoxicological information, the recently published (1999) draft Australian and New Zealand Environmental and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment quality guidelines have been used to assess possible adverse biological effects of these toxicants. The ANZECC guidelines use the lower effects range of the widely used U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) scheme to identify potentially contaminated sediment and as a threshold to trigger for additional investigative work. This guideline level has been used in the current study to assess possible toxicity of contaminated sediments in Port Jackson. It is estimated that sediments in approximately 26% of the estuary, mainly the upper parts of the harbour and much of the central harbour, have a 67% probability of being toxic. Sediments in the central harbour and a major tributary, the Middle Harbour, comprising about 40% of the estuary, have a 13 to 25% probability of toxicity. All sediments in the harbour, except at the mouth of the estuary, would require additional environmental assessment based on the proposed draft ANZECC sediment quality guidelines.

 Bird, G.A.
The nature and causes of coastal landsliding on the Maungatapu Peninsula, Tauranga, New Zealand
University of Waikato, 1981
Biswell, S. F.
Aquaculture in Action Fact Sheets
New Zealand Government, n.d
Abstract: Seven fact sheets aimed at Year 7 and 8 level to give them an opportunity to learn more about aquaculture and in particular, marine farming. They cover: what aquaculture is, New Zealand's mussels, oysters and salmon, aquaculture and the environment, aquaculture and the economy and about balancing coastal uses.

Black, K.; Beamsley, B.; Longdill, P. ; Moores, A
Bay of Plenty Current and Temperature Measurements: Aquaculture Management Areas
ASR Marine Consulting and Research Ltd; Coastal Marine Group, University of Waikato, 2005
Abstract: Temperature and current measurements were made in the eastern BOP to record the 3-dimensional structure of the Bay. The report includes short period transect deployment data collection at both of the proposed mussel farm sites mentioned above (off the coast of Opotiki and Pukehina/Otamarakau) as well as off the coast of Whakatane; no measurements taken in or around the Tauranga Harbour. The data covers the period September 2003-January 2005 and is fully summarised in Figure 2.4.

 Black, K.; Haggitt, T.; Mead, S.; Longdill, P.; Prasetya, G.; Bosserelle, C.,
Bay of Plenty Primary Production Modelling: Influence of Climatic Variation and Change
ASR Marine Consulting and Research Ltd; Coastal Marine Group, University of Waikato; Coastal and Aquatic Systems, 2006
Abstract: Altered wind patterns have consequences for up/downwelling of ocean bottom waters that provide an important source of nutrients for phytoplankton and zooplankton. In addition, the dispersal of land-sourced nutrients from the rivers throughout the Bay of Plenty will vary as the weather patterns change. The present report deals with the effects of climate on primary production in the Bay of Plenty. The numerical modelling examined changes to phytoplankton productivity during La Nina, El Nino and a more extreme westerly wind pattern (described here as “Diablo” El Nino). The latter is predicted to occur in the Bay of Plenty in response to global climate change.

Black, K. P.
Sediment Transport. Tauranga Harbour Study: Part IV
Bay of Plenty Harbour Board, 1984
Abstract: After determining to establish a joint project to study Tauranga Harbour, the Bay of Plenty Harbour Board requested sediment transport model studies from this consultant. A consulting agreement was signed on 17 June 1983 with the Ministry of Works and Development, to undertake the sediment transport modelling, while they would undertake the water flow modelling.

 Black, K. P.; Healy, T. R.; Hunter, M. G.
Sediment dynamics in the lower section of a mixed sand and shell-lagged tidal estuary, New Zealand
Journal of Coastal Research, 1989
Abstract: A series of field investigations and a numerical hydrodynamic model were applied to determine the sediment transport characteristics in the lower section of a large, tidally-dominated estuary at Whangarei Harbour, northeast New Zealand. The results show a consistent pattern in this unusual case where shell lag and shell/sand mixes have a dominant influence on the net sediment transport even though the estuary is subjected to a wide range of competent flows well above the sandy sediment threshold. A description of the estuary's sediment transport capacity, the influence of lagged beds, the relationship of morphology and sediments to tidal dynamics, especially tidal-cycle velocity residuals, and the implications for a proposed marine terminal in the study region are presented and discussed.

Blackett, P.
Te Awa O Waitao Restoration Project Social Survey 2007: Part A Interview Data
Ag Research and New Zealand Landcare Trust for NIWA, 2008
Abstract: Overall a shift in awareness of stream management issues has occurred within the Waitao Valley section of the catchment. This is probably a result of three key factors;
  • Efforts of the Te Awa O Waitao Restoration Project Joint Steering committee;
  • Collective submission in opposition to a proposed landfill site in the old pumice quarry; and
  • Formation and activities of the Waitao-Kaiate Environment Group.

 Blackett, P.; Wilson, J.
Te Awa O Waitao Social Survey 2007: Part B Survey Data
Ag Research and New Zealand Landcare Trust, 2008
Abstract: The 43 respondents generally supported the water and habitat quality improvement goals of both Te Awa O Waitao Restoration project and the Waitao-Kaiate Environment Group. They tended to be long term residents of primarily lifestyle properties within the Waitao Valley section of the catchment.

 Blaschke. P.; Ngapo, N.
Review of New Zealand Environmental Farm Plans
New Zealand Ministry for the Environment, 2003
Abstract: This report, commissioned by the Ministry for the Environment as part of its work into Agricultural Impacts, provides a background on current environmental farm plan and other farm planning practice in New Zealand and their potential linkages with industry-led environmental management initiatives.

 Boffa Miskell
Tauranga Harbour Mangroves: Ecological Issues and Values
Boffa Miskell, 2003
Abstract: Over the past 50 years there has been a 117% increase in the area of mangroves within the Tauranga Harbour. Mangrove expansion has occurred throughout the harbour, but most noticeably within the inner harbour and estuarine areas. The formation of mangrove populations can be the beginning of a natural remediation process and is a response to a range of changing environmental variables, not the least of which is substrate change and climate change. While not always the case, mangrove expansion often occurs where the land based loss of silt and sediment is continuous and relatively large. This build up of sediments and the resulting changes in water flow, nutrient and substrate type all favour mangroves, giving the species a competitive advantage over other existing communities and habitats. A loss in habitat diversity within estuarine areas can result. Mangroves also contribute positive values to the harbour environment. In this respect, they provide coastal edge protection form erosion and cause land discharged sediment entrapment, thus protecting wider water quality and habitats outside of the mangroves. Mangroves also have ecological values associated with them acting as a habitat for wildlife and fish species.

Bohlool, B.B.; Ladha, J.K.; Garrity, D.P.; George, T.
Biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agriculture: A perspective
Plant and Soil Journal, 1992
Abstract: The economic and environmental costs of the heavy use of chemical N fertilizers in agriculture are a global concern. Sustainability considerations mandate that alternatives to N fertilizers must be urgently sought. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), a microbiological process which converts atmospheric nitrogen into a plant-usable form, offers this alternative. Nitrogen-fixing systems offer an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external inputs and improving internal resources. Symbiotic systems such as that of legumes and Rhizobium can be a major source of N in most cropping systems and that of Azolla and Anabaena can be of particular value to flooded rice crop. Nitrogen fixation by associative and free-living microorganisms can also be important. However, scientific and socio-cultural constraints limit the utilization of BNF systems in agriculture. While several environmental factors that affect BNF have been studied, uncertainties still remain on how organisms respond to a given situation. In the case of legumes, ecological models that predict the likelihood and the magnitude of response to rhizobial inoculation are now becoming available. Molecular biology has made it possible to introduce choice attributes into nitrogen-fixing organisms but limited knowledge on how they interact with the environment makes it difficult to tailor organisms to order. The difficulty in detecting introduced organisms in the field is still a major obstacle to assessing the success or failure of inoculation. Production-level problems and socio-cultural factors also limit the integration of BNF systems into actual farming situations. Maximum benefit can be realized only through analysis and resolution of major constraints to BNF performance in the field and adoption and use of the technology by farmers.

 Bowers, M.
The trade and hinterland of the Port of Tauranga
Department of Geography, University of Auckland, 1971
Abstract: The development of the Port of Tauranga from a small coastal import port in the 1920, 30s, 40s, to a major overseas export port from the 1950s has been of vital importance to the Bay of Plenty region. The report investigates the relationship between the Port and the volcanic plateau region as a result of rapid overseas exports.

 Boyd, G.
Baseline Survey of the Welcome Bay Catchment and Estuary, Tauranga, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand
BOP Polytechnic Marine Studies report, 1993
Abstract: Six locations were selected on streams feeding the Welcome Bay estuary, to test the water quality as measured by pH, conductivity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Water samples were collected to determine suspended sediment quantities. Analysis of data indicated that the streams had relatively high water quality. Sediment, macrobiota and shellfish quantity and diversity surveys were conducted along the coastal margins. Shellfish were present in low numbers and in a juvenile state. Macrobiota consisted mainly of noxious exotic plants, mangroves are prolific around the foreshore, especially the streams that enter the estuary. The Otumanga Stream is bounded on one side by an area of jointed rush (Leptocarpus similis). Salinity levels were measured in the 3 streams at spring high tide to locate the upper position of the salt wedge and thus determining the likely spawning sites of Inanga (Galaxis maculatus).

 Boyd, R. O.; Reilly, J. L.
1999/2000 National Marine Recreational Fishing Survey: harvest estimates. Draft New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report
Kingett Mitchell Ltd; Statistical Insights Ltd, 2002
Abstract: Recreational harvest estimates for 1999-2000 (1 December 1999 to 30 November 2000) are presented for a wide range of fish and shellfish species. The estimates are based on a similar, but enhanced, survey methodology that has been adopted for estimating recreational harvests in previous surveys. The survey methodology involves combining results from at three separate but related surveys. An estimate of fisher prevalence derived from a nation-wide face to face survey is combined with detailed diary data of recreational harvests recorded by a nation-wide sample of recreational fishers recruited by telephone, to estimate recreational harvests in numbers of fish or shellfish. Estimated harvests in numbers of fish or shellfish were converted to total harvest weight using the results of a boat ramp survey to estimate the mean weight of recreationally harvested fish and shellfish. Key enhancements over previous surveys included the use of a face to face survey for measuring fisher prevalence, improved methods for weighting up diarists’ harvests using extensive demographic data and a more appropriate method for estimating coefficients of variation. Estimates for the 1999-2000 national marine recreational fishing survey are much higher than the estimates from previous surveys. The harvest estimate for SNA1 which has a c.v. of 11% is in excess of 6.9 million fish and 6 200 tonnes. Very few of the harvest estimates have c.v.s of less than 20%. Most of the fishstock recreational harvest estimates presented in the report are higher than previous estimates by a factor of two to three times. Coefficients of variation (c.v.s) for the harvest estimates are much larger than estimated for previous surveys but are more reflective of the complex nature of the survey design and the highly skewed nature of diarists’ harvests. These factors were not taken into account in the method used for estimates of c.v.s in previous surveys. Some of the 1999-2000 harvest estimates, particularly the estimates for a number of key fishstocks in QMA2 appear to be implausibly high. While the reasons for this are not known, the small sample size for this area may have resulted in a biased sample of diarists. Results from pilot surveys undertaken as part of the 1999-2000 survey together with a review of the available literature strongly suggest that previous harvest estimates from the 1996 national survey and earlier regional surveys are highly unreliable and probably much too low. Therefore, caution should be exercised in comparing the estimates presented here with the estimates from previous surveys as such comparisons are likely to be misleading. The improved survey methodology and estimation procedures adopted for the 1999- 2000 national marine recreational fishing survey mean that the reported harvest estimates should be more accurate than the estimates from prior surveys. The much higher recreational harvest estimates have significant fisheries sustainability and management consequences. Future surveys to estimate recreational harvests will need to focus on making further improvements to the survey methodology and improving the precision of estimates.

Braddock, H.
Potential suitability of maintenance dredged sediments for beach renourishment of Pilot Bay
University of Waikato, 2006

 Blom, W.; Grace, R.; Cooper, B.
Results of baseline and first post-dredging surveys of the biological monitoring programme
Port of Tauranga, 1993

 Bradford, J.M.; Roberts, P.E.
Distribution of reactive phosphorus and plankton in relation to upwelling and surface circulation around NZ
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1978
Abstract: For the New Zealand region, the distributions of reactive phosphorus, chlorophyll a, surface primary productivity, integrated primary productivity, and zooplankton biomass are collated, mainly from previously published data. The hydrology of the New Zealand region intimately affects the amount of reactive phosphorus available for phytoplankton growth. Winter cooling of surface waters is important in promoting nutrient recycling. Also, the New Zealand land mass and its submarine plateau disturb the general eastward flow of water, causing nutrient renewal, especially in summer, by upwelling associated with topographic features. In some upwelling areas (Three Kings Islands, Mernoo Gap, and Challenger Plateau) high reactive phosphorus concentrations are found in conjunction with maxima in chlorophyll a, primary productivity, and zooplankton biomass.

 Brannigan, A.M.
Change in Geomorphology, Hydrodynamics and Surficial Sediment of the Tauranga Entrance Tidal Delta System
Earth and Ocean Sciences Department, University of Waikato, 2009
Abstract: Historical change in the geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and surficial sediment of the tidal delta system of Tauranga Harbour are investigated with the general aim of analysing. The general aims of this thesis are: firstly to analyse historical changes to inlet delta system geomorphology using historical hydrographic charts, secondly, to conduct hydrodynamic numerical modelling using historical bathymetries to access changes in peak spring flow and potential net tidal sediment transport, and thirdly, to analyse historical changes in surficial sediment and bedforms. Geomorphic change was investigated through plotting difference in bathymetry graphs and conducting cross sections taken from digisitied bathymetries obtained from historical hydrographic charts from 1852, 1879, 1901, 1927, 1954 and a modern bathymetry from 2006. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical modelling was conducted to investigate the changes in peak tidal current flow and potential net sediment transport between 1852 and 2006. Changes in surficial sediment patterns were determined through completing a side scan sonar survey with associated sediment samples for ground truthing of grain size and underwater videography to gather surficial shell coverage information. This was used to produce a surficial sediment coverage map which was compared to historical studies. Major geomorphological findings include that the shipping channel appears to have induced minor change in the geomorphology of the FTD but such changes are similar to those identified in the historical bathymetries of 1852, 1879, 1901, 1927, 1954 prior to dredging. Significant changes have occurred on the ETD, with the majority of the ETD showing scour of 1 m while the terminal lobe has extended seawards. This is associated with historical (since 1852) narrowing of the inlet from Panepane Point to Mt Maunganui by ~ 900 m. Hydrodynamic numerical modelling has shown a significant increase in potential net tidal sediment transport in the Cutter Channel due to dredging, while the Maunganui Roads Channel shows a reduction of net potential tidal sediment transport that is associated with the dredging of this channel. The area surrounding Panepane Point undergoes significant increases and decreases in net potential tidal sediment transport both before and after dredging Investigation of the surficial sediment patterns over the FTD and ETD from sidescan sonar and bottom samples show that between 1983 and 2007 there has been a northwards extension of the area of major shell (greater than 50 %) converge in the main ebb channel as well as reduction in major shell converge in flood tidal delta ebb shield region. The Maunganui Roads Channel changes from sitly sands to medium and fine sands.

 Bray,T.; Gill, S.; Edwards, R.
How do quota management systems work in rock lobster fisheries? A comparative analysis of the experience in New Zealand, Tasmania and South
Department of Fisheries, Perth WA, 2006
Abstract: Quota management systems are now in place for the New Zealand, Tasmanian and South Australian rock lobster fisheries. New Zealand was the first to move to QMS (1989), followed by the Southern Zone of South Australia (1993), Tasmania (1998) and Northern Zone South Australia (2001). Throughout the world of fisheries management, there are a number of assumptions made about quota management systems. Most common are that under a QMS the fleet size falls, the ownership of commercial fishing access rights will concentrate and there will be vertical integration through the catching and processing sectors. These assumed effects are made because the economic theory is that there are strong incentives for fishing fleets to restructure in order to become more efficient and focus on maximising the value of their catch as opposed to investing in inputs to maximise their catch.

 Bremer, S.
Evaluating the State of New Zealand's Coastal Management: Application of Integrated Coastal Management Indicators at the National and Local Scale
New Zealand Centre for Ecological Economics, Massey University,2009
Abstract: This monograph seeks to provide a broad evaluation of current coastal management in New Zealand. It uses indicators taken from Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) research, and applies them at both a national scale, through a desktop study, and at a regional scale, through semi-structured interviews with planning and policy representatives from all regional authorities. While the monograph is coloured by a ‘planning’ bias, it has strived to illuminate all the issues facing the New Zealand coastal management institutional framework. While some key coastal management duties such as writing and reviewing the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement are led within central government, the coastal management framework devolves significant responsibility to local government. In practice, the majority of coastal management occurs in the regions and districts through Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA) policy and plans, administered in concert with local Department of Conservation conservancy offices. This highlights the importance of regional variation; both in the pressures exerted on a regions coastline, and in their capacity to respond to these pressures. Indeed most regions felt their coastline was one of the resources least under pressure within their region, meaning they managed the coastline with a commensurate level of resources and commitment. The coastal management framework remains fundamentally fragmented across the RMA, the Conservation Act 1987, and the Fisheries Act 1996. For many practitioners, this lack of a single coastal vision or strategy, and poor communication between central government and local government were sources of vertical fragmentation. Meanwhile, the jurisdictional boundary at high tide, and poor coordination between government agencies, remain significant sources of horizontal fragmentation. Moreover, the current management framework places too much emphasis on regulatory mechanisms, which are being implemented in a combative and litigious arena. This makes the policy process laborious and non-responsive to issues, and it is for this reason that almost no regions have introduced economic tools. Finally, the lack of knowledge of New Zealand’s coastal environment, and the lack of capacity in local government to improve this knowledge, poses one of the greatest barriers to making informed decisions. The significant devolution of power to local government allows significant latitude for creative initiatives, particularly of a non-statutory nature. All regions recognised a network of interested stakeholders that reconfigured and mobilised around different coastal issues, and which had an open and honest relationship with the council. Relationships were at times nurtured through forums of varying formality and frequency, or more often through the preparation of policy. Almost all regions augmented their RMA First Schedule policy process with other non-statutory tools, and many planned to include more local knowledge in the preparation of their second generation policy. Perhaps the most significant opportunity was seen in non-statutory policy initiatives; with 17 forms of these documents detailed across nine councils. Even statutory policies were evolving in their form and sophistication, with all existing, and other planned, second-generation policy documents taking a more integrated approach. This noted, many regions felt their autonomy also hindered them in the resources they needed to expend litigating policy documents. There was a strong desire for central government to write, and defend, policy that could be slotted directly into local government documents.

Brian, K. G.
Compliance report: Bay of Plenty Fertiliser Limited, report no 98/10
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 1998
Abstract: Bay of Plenty Fertiliser Limited operates a nine hectare manufacturing site at Mount Maunganui, adjacent to the Tauranga Harbour Bridge Toll Plaza. Fertiliser and raw products have been stored, blended and manufactured on this site since 1955. BOP Fertiliser holds a number of resource consents for the discharge of contamination and the taking of sea and ground waters. This report deals with consent number 02 4155 the discharge of site stormwater.

Bridson, L.
Minimising visitor impacts on threatened shorebirds and their habitats
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 2000
Abstract: The Waipu and Ruakaka Wildlife Refuges in Northland are recognised as habitats of international importance as they provide regular breeding sites for the endangered New Zealand fairy tern and the threatened New Zealand dotterel. Despite management initiatives, the level of human related disturbance upon these shorebirds is increasing. This study was conducted with the aims of identifying: the current levels and patterns of visitor use; visitors' level of awareness about shorebirds and the impacts upon them; and the compatibility of visitors' activities with the needs of shorebirds. An on-site questionnaire was used at both Waipu and Ruakaka to enable this information to be collected.The results show that the average visitor utilising the Wildlife Refuges was aged between 33-45 and from Auckland. They usually visited once a year, but for a considerable number it was their first visit. Most stayed locally and used the refuge for swimming, fishing and surfing. An important difference between the two sites was that more local residents appeared to utilise the Waipu Wildlife Refuge than the Ruakaka Refuge.

Briggs, R. M.; Houghton, B. F.; McWilliams, M.; Wilson, C. J. N.
40Ar/39Ar ages of silicic volcanic rocks in the Tauranga-Kaimai area, New Zealand: dating the transition between volcanism in the Coromandel Arc and the Taupo Volcanic Zone
New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 2005
Abstract: Subduction-related volcanism in the northern part of the North Island of New Zealand shifted abruptly during the late Pliocene. This study focuses on the transition, in time and space, from the NNW-oriented Miocene–Pliocene Coromandel Volcanic Zone to the northeast-oriented active Taupo Volcanic Zone. The volcanic rocks marking this transition are exposed in the Tauranga Basin and adjacent Kaimai Range, and associated here with the recently defined Tauranga and Kaimai Volcanic Centres, respectively. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations indicate that the transition occurred between 1.90 and 1.55 Ma, that is between the youngest age of silicic volcanism in the Tauranga-Kaimai area, and the age of the oldest silicic volcanism in the Taupo Volcanic Zone. This interpretation is generally consistent with recent plate models and with the initiation of the Kermadec Arc within the last 2 m.y.

 Britton, R.; Lee, B.; Lawrie, A.; Whale, J.; Watson, P.; Rauputu, J.; Larking, C.
Tauranga Harbour Recreation Strategy
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2008
Abstract: This strategy explores the issues for recreation on Tauranga Harbour and sets out a series of actions to improve recreation opportunities and reduce conflict, while maintaining the quality of the environment. It is a joint strategy between Environment Bay of Plenty, Tauranga City Council and Western Bay of Plenty District Council. The need for the strategy arose from SmartGrowth and the Tauranga Harbour Integrated Management Strategy. They identified the impacts of recreation are not well understood, we need better planning for recreational activities, and planning needs to be a joint effort between the community and the three councils. The vision for the strategy is: “Recreation on Tauranga Harbour is, enjoyable, safe, sustainable, and accessible to all: A set of goals and principles set out how the vision is to be achieved and a framework for decision making.

 Broekhuizen, N.; Ren, J.; Zeldis, J.; Stevens, S.
Ecological sustainability assessment for Firth of Thames shellfish aquaculture: Tasks 2-4 - Biological modelling
NIWA; Auckland Regional Council; Environment Waikato, Regional Council, 2004
Abstract: NIWA were engaged by the Auckland Regional Council, Environment Waikato and the Western Firth Mussel Consortium to make quantitative predictions of the degree to which large-scale mussel farming in the western Firth would influence snapper egg / larval survival and plankton abundance and spatial distribution.

 Broekhuizen, N.; Oldman, J.W.; Image, K.; Gall, M.; Zeldis, J.
Verification of plankton depletion models against the Wilson Bay synoptic survey data
NIWA; Auckland Regional Council; Environment Waikato, Regional Council, 2005
Abstract: This report presents the results of a verification exercise applied to the models NIWA utilised to assess the ecological sustainability of the Firth of Thames shellfish aquaculture: the 'original biophysical model', the 'revised biophysical model' the 'logistic plankton model', and the 'hydrodynamic model' which drives transport in the biological models.

 Bruce, A. C.
Compliance Report: Tauranga District Council Discharge of Tauranga and Mount Maunganui Sewage Consent Numbers 02 3803 and 02 3540
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 1999
Abstract: This report gives a brief outline of the wastewater treatment facilities in the Tauranga District (at the time) and how it is processed and discharged into the Pacific Ocean. It also provides background information on the history of wastewater treatment in the district.

 Brueton, L.H.
Port of Tauranga the central port of the North Island of New Zealand - strategic port plan 1975-2000
Bay of Plenty Harbour Board, 1975
Abstract: Bay of Plenty Harbour Board strategic plan from 1975 for the next 25 years.

 Buckley, M. T.
BOP Fertiliser compliance report
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2000
Abstract: Bay of Plenty Limited operates a nine hectare manufacturing site at Mt Maunganui adjacent to the Tauranga Harbour Toll Plaza. Fertiliser and raw products have been stored, blended and manufactured on this site since 1955. BOP Fertiliser holds a number of resource consents for the discharge of contaminants and the taking of sea and groundwaters.This report deals with consent numbers 02 4155 the discharge of site stormwater and 04 0056 the discharge of wastewater. The period of consent covered in this report is May 1998 to June 2000.

 Burgess, E.A.
Foraging Ecology of Common Dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand (MSc thesis)
Massey University (Albany), 2006
Abstract: This is a comprehensive study of the foraging ecology of common dolphins in the Hauraki Gulf Maine Park, off the east coast of Auckland. The study was based on field work conducted between January and April 2006 during which a total of 59 focal groups were followed and observed. Data collected during the observation include predominant behaviours state of the group, foraging phase, foraging strategy, group dispersion, group formation, swimming style, group heading, calf presence and associated species. Many findings were obtained from the data. For example, common dolphins on average spent 14% of the time on feeding, with larger groups spending more time foraging than smaller groups. Herding accounted for a large part of the foraging behaviour of common dolphins. Nontheless, the results from this study indicate that the benefits of coordinated team hunts implemented by common dolphins in the Hauraki Gulf are a key factor in their foraging ecology. Their cooperative foraging skills appear to not only benefit the common dolphin individual, but other species as well. Ultimately, their role as a social hunter and an abundant, apex predator in the ocean, suggests that the common dolphin is a strongly interacting species which may facilitate population viability of other species in the Hauraki Gulf ecosystem.

 Burggraaf, S.
A study of chemical pollutants in the Tauranga Harbour
University of Waikato, New Zealand, 1993

 Burggraaf, S.; Langdon, A.G.; Wilkins, A.L.
Organochlorine contaminants in sediments of the Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1994
Abstract: DDT, PCBs, and dieldrin in Tauranga Harbour sediments. After identifying levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at elevated levels in a Waikareao Estaury sample, Burggraaf, Langdon and Wilkins (1994) further tested eastern shore Waikareao Estuary sediments for these and other organochlorine chemical pollutants. Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are water pollutants that are highly persistent in the environment in that they don’t readily degrade, they are toxic, and they are bioaccumulative. Bioaccumulation refers to the tendency for these toxins to accumulate in the foodchain. Species accumulate the toxins by eating contaminated plants and animals. This poisoning can be passed along the foodchain and accumulate most in the top end consumers.

 Burggraaf, S.; Wilkins, A. L.; Langdon, A. G.; Wilcock, R. J.
Organochlorine Compounds in Three Species of from Waikareao Estuary, Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1996
Abstract: We have previously reported the levels of some organochlorine compounds (OCCs) in sediments from the Waikareao Estuary (Figure l), a small inlet of Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand (37°39'S, 176°ll'E). The detection of significant levels of OCCs in Waikareao Estuary sediments prompted us to investigate the levels of nine PCB congeners, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p‘-DDE, technical chlordane, and dieldrin in three species of shellfish gathered from eleven sites in the estuary.

 Burggraaf, S.; Wilkins, A. L.; Langdon, A. G.; Kim, N. D.
Heavy metals and organic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Waikareao Estuary, Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1997
Abstract: Organic pollutants in Tauranga Harbour sediments: PAHs, n-alkanes and hopane triterpenes. Burggraaf et al (1997) investigated the levels of three groups of organic hydrocarbons, PAHs, n-alkanes and hopane triterpenes in eleven sites in the Waikareao Estuary. PAHs are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are thought to be teratogenic (abnormalities in birth and developmental stages), carcinogenic (exacerbate and increase cancer through disruption of cellular metabolic process), and mutagenic (changes to genetic material). Results found elevated levels of PAHs in sites adjacent to storm water drains and a lesser concentrations at a site adjacent to the Kopurererua Stream mouth. The PAH levels found were less than the levels considered harmful to aquatic organisms. The type of sediment was found to be important in PAH levels with shell fragments, pumice and stones having low levels in comparison to rich organic matter which had higher levels. The n-alkanes identified were generally two types, the shorter chained n-C15 to n-C22 petroleum hydrocarbons and the n-C23 to n-C33 plant waxes. The higher chains are solids and more likely to be retained in sediment for a longer time than the more volatile shorter chains (n-C17) which are liquid. Some hopane triterpenes were found, indicating the presence of petroleum contamination.

 Burrell, M.; Meehan, L.
The New Zealand Aquaculture Strategy
Creative Design Advertising Ltd, 2006
Abstract: This strategy sets out how regional and local government and economic development agencies can work in partnership with industry, government, iwi, science and training providers, and communities to promote environmentally sustainable aquaculture in New Zealand. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of innovation in accelerating the growth rate of the sector. This includes production and process innovations for current products, as well as innovations in new species and products, underpinned by sound market knowledge.

 Busing, P.
Impacts of inter-tidal macroalgal mats on benthic communities
University of Waikato, New Zealand, 1999
Abstract: Problems associated with algal mats have increased in frequency and intensity over the last 30 years. In recent years, blooms of Ulva spp. reach unprecedented levels on Tauranga Harbour. The presence of algal mats has been identified as producing changes in the benthic macrofaunal communities. The impact of inter-tidal algal mats on benthic macrofaunal was studied using two manipulative experiments in conjunction with monitoring natural mats communities. Both full and empty mesh bags were attached to the bottom. The mesh bags and controls were sampled 3,7,14,28 and 42 days after they were developed. Within 7 days large numbers of the amphipod Polycheria obtusa were present in the algal mats. After 14 days the herbivorous gastropod Zeacumantis subcarinatus and the crab Hemigrapsus edwardsi appeared in significantly higher numbers. Mounding of sediment under the 42-day-old empty mesh bags were found to cause an increase in number of the polychaete, Perineresis camiquinoides. Once the mats had been removed from the study site, the areas affected by the mat were resampled in order to monitor the recovery of the sites over time. The sites were resampled 3, 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after the mats had been removed. Due to the spatial scale of the experiment, the recovery from the effects of algal mats was nearly complete after 3 days. Post-settlement processes were responsible for the quick recovery. Only the polychaete, Perinereis camiquinoides showed any lasting effects from the experiment, being found 14 days after the 42 day mesh bags were removed.

 Butler, D.J.
Possible Impacts of Marine Farming of Mussels (Perna canaliculus) on King Shags (Leucocarbo carunculatus)
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 2003
Abstract: The king shag (Leucocarbo carunculatus) is an endemic species classed as Vulnerable; its total population of c. 650 individuals is confined to the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Possible effects of mussel farms are of increasing concern as some licence applications cover the deeper water favoured by the birds. The birds forage within c. 24 km from nest colonies and are deep divers, feeding on fish typically in areas with depths of 20–40 m; a flounder, which (Arnoglossus scapha), was the main component of their diet. Mussel farms could have wide impacts on marine ecology, which may in turn affect king shags. Minor changes in current flows have been recorded, but more significant impacts are on bottom sediments and the water column through deposition of fine sediments (faeces and pseudofaeces) and shell litter in certain currents at a site. Currents and the amount of stratification at a site also determine how large an effect a farm has on the water column through removal of phytoplankton, inputs of nitrogen, and the creation of habitat for ‘fouling’ organisms. However, the flow-on effects of changes of the sediments and water column to the wider marine ecology, particularly the fish on which king shags depend, are poorly understood. Modelling research is examining cumulative effects of farms to estimate the carrying capacity of an area. There are risks of transferring unwanted organisms or diseases associated with farms. Proposals are made for monitoring the king shags and their diet and feeding ecology, and determining what impacts, negative or positive, mussel farms have on them.

 Butler, R. J.
Benthic communities of the Stella Passage region, Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
School of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, 1999
Abstract: Benthic communities in the Stella Passage region of Tauranga harbour were investigated from September 1997 to December 1998. The first research aim was to describe spatial and temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The second aim was to describe the immediate changes in community composition following maintenance dredging of Stella Passage, a major shipping channel within Tauranga Harbour. It was intended that obtained data would provide baseline information regarding variation in benthic community composition against which future ecological investigations may be compared. Four surveys of the benthic communities were conducted in the Stella Passage region, September 1997, January, April and June 1998. Species composition was spatially variable and four distinct community groups, correlated with physical characteristics, were identified. Nucula hartvigiana, Pectinaria australis and Helice crassa were associated with fine black silt sediments and low current velocities ( 0.5 ms ), Tawera spissa and Paguridae sp., with low stability coarse sand in areas of high current velocity ( 0.5 ms ). Paphies australis and Micrelenchus huttoni were characteristic species of areas with substantial amounts of seabed shell material, Maoricolpus roseus and Armandia maculata of areas with patches of macroalgae (Ulva sp.). Temporal community variation occurred at a lesser degree although areas subjected to frequent natural disturbances exhibited variable community composition.From November 5th to December 4th 1998, a smaller scale survey was performed 2 days before and 2, 11, and 18 days after maintenance dredging. After dredging, community composition was significantly different and the abundance and number of taxa at dredged sites had significantly decreased. The disproportionate dominance of polychaete fauna temporarily declined as did species diversity. Three small robust crustacean taxa were principally responsible for the significant difference between dredged and non-dredged communities. Eighteen days after dredging, most taxonomic groups had reached original levels of abundance while community composition remained distinct from the non-dredged localities.

 Cabinet Office New Zealand
Aquaculture Reform: Further Proposals and Report on Progress (Minute of Decision paper #2)
Ministry of Fisheries New Zealand, 2010
Abstract: These are the minutes of the Cabinet decision on the aquaculture reform (2010) about further proposals and reports on progress. Decisions made are to do with: transition of existing farms; outstanding applications and interim Aquaculture Management Areas (AMAs) under the new law; achieving the reform objectives through regional coastal plans; relevant RMA amendments; amendments to the Aquaculture Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 2), July 2008; notes on report back on planning and consenting and the allocation tools for managing high and/or competing demand; notes on streamlined re-consenting process and default 'restricted discretionary' status.

Camp Dresser & McKee Inc. under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Guidelines for Water Reuse
U.S. Agency for International Development, 2004
Abstract:  The 2004 Guidelines for Water Reuse examines opportunities for substituting reclaimed water for potable water supplies where potable water quality is not required. It presents and summarizes recommended water reuse guidelines, along with supporting information, as guidance for the benefit of the water and wastewater utilities and regulatory agencies, particularly in the U.S. The document updates the 1992 Guidelines document by incorporating information on water reuse that has been developed since the 1992 document was issued. This revised edition also expands coverage of water reuse issues and practices in other countries. It includes many new and updated case studies, expanded coverage of indirect potable reuse and industrial reuse issues, new information on treatment and disinfection technologies, emerging chemicals and pathogens of concern, economics, user rates and funding alternatives, public involvement and acceptance (both successes and failures), research activities and results, and sources of further information. It also includes as an updated matrix of state regulations and guidelines, and a list of state contacts. This information should be useful to states in developing water reuse standards, and revising or expanding existing regulations. It should also be useful to planners, consulting engineers and others actively involved in the evaluation, planning, design, operation or maintenance of water reclamation and reuse facilities.

 Carman, M. R.
Benthic foraminifera associated with the invasive ascidian, Didemnum sp A
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2007
Abstract: The invasive ascidian, Didemnum sp. A, first appeared in New England bays and harbours in the early 1990s, and in the waters around Cape Cod in 1993. While ship traffic was the likely vector introducing the species, its origin and precise date and location of its introduction are presently unknown. Colony surfaces of Didemnum sp. A appear very clean and not favorable substrates for epibiota settlement, but closer inspection revealed the presence of benthic foraminifera. During 2003 and 2004, 52 samples of Didemnum sp. A and other ascidians were collected to determine whether or not the foraminiferal assemblages might also be non-native and thus provide a potential clue to the place of origin of Didemnum sp. A. Sample locations included the New England coast from Connecticut to Maine (with a concentration in the Cape Cod area), northern California, Zeeland, The Netherlands, and Shakespeare Bay, New Zealand. From New England samples, 18 species of benthic foraminifera were identified. The most common species represented were Cornuspira involvens, C. planorbis, Elphidium galvestonense, E. margaritaceum, Glabratellina lauriei, Miliolinella subrotunda, Quinqueloculina bicornis, and Rosalina floridana. Foraminiferal assemblages on Didemnum sp. A from other regions sampled were composed of the same cosmopolitan species found in New England, plus other species which were indigenous to each region. Because no exotic foraminifera species were found it is concluded that Didemnum sp. A likely did not introduce non-native foraminifera originating from their native habitats into the New England region.

 Caruso, B.S.
Comparative Analysis of New Zealand and US Approaches for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Management
Environmental Management, 2000
Abstract: The role of the central government in New Zealand is generally limited to research and policy development, and regional councils are responsible for most monitoring and management of the problem. The role of the federal government in the United States includes research and monitoring, policy development, and regulation. States also have a significant management role. Both countries rely on voluntary approaches for NPS pollution management. Very few national water quality standards exist in New Zealand, whereas standards are widely used in the United States. Loading estimates and modelling are often used in the United States, but not in New Zealand. A wide range of best management practices (BMPs) are used in the United States, including buffer strips and constructed/engineered wetlands. Buffer strips and riparian management have been emphasized and used widely in New Zealand. Many approaches are common to both countries, but management of the problem has only been partly successful. The primary barriers are the inadequacy of the voluntary approach and the lack of scientific tools that are useful to decision-makers. More work needs to be performed on the evaluation of approaches developed in both countries that could be applied in the other countries. In addition, more cooperation and information/technology transfer between the two countries should be encouraged in the future.

Maori, whales and “whaling” an ongoing relationship; in Conservation Advisory Science Notes (no. 308)
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 2000
Abstract: This report covers Polynesian navigation, Maori respect for whales, the arrival of European whalers, NZ shore whaling stations, the decline of whales, whaling from off-shore islands, and the significance of whaling in NZ .

 Chang, F.H.; Garthwaite,I.; Anderson,D.M.; Towers,N.; Stewart,R.; Mackenzie,L.
Immunofluorescent detection of a PSP-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum, from Bay of Plenty, New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1999
Abstract: This study investigated immunofluorescent detection of a PSP-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum, from Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. The cross-reactivity of an antibody raised against cell surface antigens of Alexandrium minutum Halim, a dinoflagellate isolated from the Bay of Plenty during the 1993 toxic shellfish outbreaks, was tested on other strains of the same species isolated from a variety of locations, as well as a wide range of unrelated phytoplankton using an indirect immunofluorescence staining technique. The antibody showed positive reactions to all four isolates of A. minutum from different localities in New Zealand and one from South Australia. The antibody also showed a positive, but weaker, reaction to A. ostenfeldii (two isolates) from New Zealand but no reaction with A. lusitanicum, a species which is morphologically similar to A. minutum. No cross-reactivity was observed with 51 species or strains from 10 different algal classes tested. The antibody bound to cells of A. minutum preserved with either 2.5% glutaraldehyde or 3.5% formaldehyde. Recognition of cells in stationary growth phase, including the encysted form, however, was generally weaker than for cells growing exponentially. The cell surface location of the antigen was confirmed using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

 Chang,F.H.; Zeldis, J.; Gall, M.; Hall, J.
Seasonal and spatial variation of phytoplankton assemblages, biomass and cell size from spring to summer across the north-eastern New Zealand continental shelf
Journal of Plankton Research, 2003
Abstract: This article investigated the composition, biomass and cell size of phytoplankton taxonomic groups in the Hauraki Gulf and adjacent shelf of north-eastern New Zealand. On the inner shelf, over-winter mixing and upwelling supported a bloom dominated by large, chain-forming diatoms in a moderately turbulent water column in early spring. The bloom declined in late spring because of nutrient limitation, and the assemblage evolved initially toward small diatoms, and eventually to co-occurrence of dinoflagellates, small nanoflagellates and picophytoplankton in early and late summer. Mid- to outer shelf biomass was much lower than inshore, and was dominated by small or motile taxa which were probably limited by grazing and light. In early summer, strong upwelling displaced inner shelf phytoplankton to beyond the shelf edge, whilst enriching the shelf with nutrients. However, shelf phytoplankton biomass increased only after the relaxation of upwelling. The Hauraki Gulf was strongly stratified from early spring through late summer. The flora were seasonally less variable than on the shelf, with a thecate dinoflagellate-dominated flora in early spring, replaced post-bloom by the co-occurrence of presumably low-nutrient-adapted autotrophic and/or heterotrophic dinoflagellates (most of which were non-thecate, and some toxic), nanoflagellates and picophytoplankton. The succession in floristics was consistent with a change from an autotrophic toward a heterotrophic ecosystem from spring to summer. Implications for secondary production, and vertical and lateral organic carbon export on the shelf, are discussed.

 Chapman, Peter M.; Paine, Michael D.; Arthur, Allan D.; Taylor, Laura A.
A triad study of sediment quality associated with a major, relatively untreated marine sewage discharge
Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1996
Abstract: Sediment chemistry, toxicity and benthic community structure were used individually and together (i.e. the sediment quality triad) to assess the effects of screened but otherwise untreated sewage from a major city, discharged to the marine environment via an offshore, deep water outfall. Only two chemicals related to the outfall, mercury (probably primarily from hospitals and dental offices) and 1,4-dichlorobenzene (probably primarily from urinal deodorizers) were found in the sediments at concentrations of possible concern, up to 100 m away from the outfall terminus. Sediment toxicity tests indicated that survival was not a major problem, even at the outfall terminus; however, growth and development were reduced up to 100 m away from the outfall terminus. Benthic community structure followed the Pearson-Rosenberg model for organic enrichment, with stations 100 m away from the outfall terminus typical of moderately polluted conditions. Such minimal, highly localized impacts to the receiving environment are not unexpected, since the receiving environment is well flushed and mixed, and the city is not highly industrialized. The results of this study raise questions concerning generic decisions about sewage treatment where site- and situation-specific conditions do not indicate a major problem, and source control is a reasonable option.

 Chassot, E.; Gascuel, D.
Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries: From indicators to theorical simulation; towards a model coupling ecology and economics applied to Finistere (France)
Unknown Publisher, 2005
Abstract: The overfishing of many fish stocks at the global scale associated with the degradation of marine ecosystems have progressively put into relief the limits of current fisheries management. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF), particularly recommended by FAO, calls for modifying the perception of fisheries management in order to include ecosystem considerations. By improving our understanding of population and ecosystem dynamics, and by quantifying the effects of fishing, EAF thus aims to reconcile sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources and conservation. The PhD thesis is part of a European project (PECHDEV QLRT-2000-02277), aiming to define a link between the state of the ecosystem, the dynamics of marine exploited populations, and the economic sectors of the production region. The case study is the department of Finistere (France), characterized by a high degree of dependence on fishing.

 Chassot, E.; Melin, F.; Le Pape, O.; Gascuel, D.
Bottom-up control regulates fisheries production at the scale of eco-regions in European seas
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2007
Abstract: We used primary productivity data derived from remote sensing images and catch data for the period 1998 to 2004 to characterize the productivity of eco-regions in the northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean, Black and Baltic Seas, and then analyzed the strength of the trophic linkage between primary productivity and marine fisheries production in European seas. Mean annual primary production (PP) derived from an ocean-colour based model was highly contrasted among eco-regions, exceeding 500 g C m(-2) yr(-1) in the Marmara and North Seas but being less than 150 g C m(-2) yr(-1) in the Faroes, Adriatic-Ionian and Aegean-Levantine Seas. Fisheries production expressed in mean annual yield and primary production required to support catches (PPR) varied greatly among eco-regions, from 0.02 t km(-2) and 0.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1) for the oceanic northeast Atlantic eco-region to 6 t km(-2) and 130 g C m(-2) yr(-1) in the Marmara Sea respectively. Linear regression models showed significant positive relationships between PP and yield as well as between PP and PPR, suggesting a strong linkage between marine productivity and fisheries production in European seas. Moreover, this bottom-up control appeared consistent over time: recent mean annual yield for the period 1998 to 2004 reflected the long-term yield averaged over the last 3 decades. We argue that such large-scale coupling is due to energy transfer along the food web (from phytoplankton to predators) through predation processes, primary productivity driving the production of living marine resources and their exploitation at the scale of eco-regions. Our findings have an important bearing for ecosystem approaches to fisheries, particularly for the estimation of the capacity of eco-regions with regard to sustainable exploitation. This is further relevant in a context of climate change, because variations in PP linked to global warming could strongly modify fisheries production in the future.

 Chassot, E.; Bonhommear,S.; Dulvy,N.; Melin, F.; Watson,R.; Gascuel, D; Pape, O.L.
Global marine primary production constrains fisheries catches
Ecology Letters, 2010
Abstract: This study examined constrains of global marine primary production on fisheries catches. It shows that phytoplanktonic primary production, estimated from an ocean-colour satellite (SeaWiFS), is related to global fisheries catches at the scale of Large Marine Ecosystems, while accounting for temperature and ecological factors such as ecosystem size and type, species richness, animal body size, and the degree and nature of fisheries exploitation. The study demonstrates that global fishery catches since 1950 have been increasingly constrained by the amount of primary production. The primary production appropriated by current global fisheries is 17–112% higher than that appropriated by sustainable fisheries. Global primary production appears to be declining, in some part due to climate variability and change, with consequences for the near future fisheries catches.

 Childerhouse, S.
Cetacean research in New Zealand 2001; in DOC Internal Science Series 87
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 2001
Abstract: This report summarises cetacean (i.e. whales and dolphins) research undertaken in New Zealand over the period April 2001 to March 2002 with statistical information for the 2001 calendar year. It covers cetacean research by a wide range of researchers including Government, University and non-governmental agencies and individuals. Information is presented on species studied, strandings, research projects undertake n, samples collected and references to the publications resulting from research. Data of 18 species, from 8 different institutions/agencies and 47 researchers are included. Although the report is comprehensive for work reported to Government in 2001, it does not include all cetacean research currently carried out in New Zealand.

 Childerhouse, S.; Jackson, J.; Bakers, C.S.; Gales, N. Clapham, P.J. Brownell Jr, R.L.
Megaptera novaeangliae (Oceania subpopulation). List of Threatened Species
International Union for Conservation and Nature (IUCN), 2008
Abstract: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is widely recognized as the most comprehensive, objective global approach for evaluating the conservation status of plant and animal species.

 Clarkson, B. D.; Clarkson, B. R.; Denyer, K.; Gerbeaux, P.; Harmsworth, G.; Johnson, P.N.; Partridge, T.R.; Richmond, C.; Smith, S.; Wilde, R.H.
Monitoring changes in wetland extent: an environmental performance indicator for wetlands Final report - project phase one
Lincoln Environmental, Lincoln University, 1999
Abstract: This report documents Phase One of the Coordinated Monitoring of New Zealand Wetlands (SMF) project, which is aimed at developing a nationally consistent methodology for mapping and monitoring New Zealand’s wetlands.

 Clarkson, B. R.; Sorrell, B. K.; Reeves, P. N.; Chapman, P. D.; Patridge, T. R.; Clarkson, B. D.
Handbook for monitoring wetland condition
Landcare Research, 2003
Abstract: To assist with New Zealand's obligations as a signatory to two international conventions - the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands - this handbook describes a set of science-based indicators that have been developed to monitor the condition of New Zealand estuarine and palustrine wetlands. It has been designed for managers, landowners, community groups and anyone else with a need to monitor the condition of wetlands.

 Clarkson, B.D. ; Wehi, P.M. ; Brabyn, L.K.
A Spatial Analysis of Indigenous Cover patterns and Implications for Ecological Restoration in Urban Centres, NZ
Urban Ecosystems, 2007
Abstract: High levels of endemism, the sensitivity of species that have evolved without humans, and the invasion of exotic species have all contributed to severe depletion of indigenous biodiversity in New Zealand. We considered the contribution that urban restoration can make to maximising biodiversity by analysing landcover patterns from two national databases along an urban–rural gradient. Thirteen of 20 land environments in New Zealand are represented in cities, and nearly three-quarters of all acutely threatened land environments are represented within 20 km of city cores nationally. Despite this, remaining indigenous landcover is low within urban cores, with less than 2% on average, but increasing to more than 10% on average in the periurban zone. Threatened lowland environments are most commonly represented within cities, and least represented within protected natural areas. Restoration of existing urban habitat is insufficient to halt biodiversity loss. Ecosystem reconstruction is required to achieve a target of 10% indigenous cover within cities. A co-ordinated national urban biodiversity plan to address issues beyond a local and regional focus is needed. Analysis of national patterns of urban land environments, indigenous cover and remnant ecosystems will support action at a regional and local level while enhancing national and global biodiversity goals.

 Clement, D
Marine Mammals within Gisborne District Coastal Waters
Cawthron Institute, 2010
Abstract: The Gisborne District Council (GDC) is in the process of reviewing provisions regarding natural heritage for their Regional Coastal Environment Plan, one of which is to identify the presence of any valuable indigenous marine mammal populations. GDC contracted Cawthron Institute to collate and review all available records of marine mammal species that might reside or migrate along the North Island’s central and southern coastal waters, specifically focusing on GDC’s territorial waters. These records were used to create species sighting maps and identify any potentially important habitat regions and/or migration routes.

 Cloern, J.E.
The relative importance of light and nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth: a simple index of coastal ecosystem sensitivity to nutrient enrichment
Aquatic Ecology, 1999
Abstract: Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone is now a well-established fact. However, there is still uncertainty about the mechanisms through which nutrient enrichment can disrupt biological communities and ecosystem processes in the coastal zone. For example, while some estuaries exhibit classic symptoms of acute eutrophication, including enhanced production of algal biomass, other nutrient-rich estuaries maintain low algal biomass and primary production. This implies that large differences exist among coastal ecosystems in the rates and patterns of nutrient assimilation and cycling. Part of this variability comes from differences among ecosystems in the other resource that can limit algal growth and production – the light energy required for photosynthesis. Complete understanding of the eutrophication process requires consideration of the interacting effects of light and nutrients, including the role of light availability as a regulator of the expression of eutrophication. A simple index of the relative strength of light and nutrient limitation of algal growth can be derived from models that describe growth rate as a function of these resources. This index can then be used as one diagnostic to classify the sensitivity of coastal ecosystems to the harmful effects of eutrophication. Here I illustrate the application of this diagnostic with light and nutrient measurements made in three California estuaries and two Dutch estuaries.

 Clothier, B.; Mackay, A.
Ecosystem services: Thinking about nature's benefits - Presentation for the Land Use Futures Board
Plant & Food Research; agresearch, 2009
Abstract: This is a power point presentation explaining and describing the importance of using ecosystem services in sustainable land management practises, and taking it a step further to use ecosystem services data as measurables in environmental policy. It also gives a glimpse on how other counties around the world are starting to do this. The emphasis of this power point is the significance of soil - for example, all of the 17 ecosystem services listed in Costanza et al 1997 involve soil. Many research papers are referred to, including P.Hawken et al 1999 (Natural Capitalism), Costanza et al 1997 (17 ecosystem services across 16 biomes), the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, and more.

 Cochrane, K. L.; Augustyn, C. J.; Bianchi, G.; de Barros, P.; Fairweather, T.; Iitembu, J.; Japp, D.; Kanandjembo, A.; Kilongo, K.,; Moroff, N.; Nel, D.; Roux, J. P.; Shannon, L. J.; van Zyl, B. ; Vaz Velho, F.
Results and conclusions of the project "Ecosystem approaches for fisheries management in the Benguela Current large marine ecosystem"
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2007
Abstract: This report provides the final results and conclusions of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) project LMR/EAF/03/01 “Ecosystem approaches for fisheries management in the BCLME”. The project set out to examine the feasibility of implementing an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem which extends from east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, to Angola's Cabinda province in the north. The project, a cooperative effort by BCLME, the management agencies of the three countries and FAO, started in January 2004 and ended in December 2006. The main objective of the project has been to investigate the feasibility of EAF management in the BCLME region through examining the existing issues, problems and needs related to EAF, and considering different management options to achieve sustainable management of the resources at an ecosystem level. The approach followed was to focus on ten of the major fisheries in the three countries. The project used a structured and participatory approach, attempting to engage the range of stakeholders in the countries, in order to identify and prioritize the gaps in the existing, largely conventional, approaches to fisheries management and to describe potential management actions necessary to address those gaps. In a similarly participatory approach, preliminary estimates of the costs and benefits (positive and negative impacts) of those actions specifically related to implementation of EAF have been made. The costs and benefits were evaluated for each of the broad objectives identified for each fishery. The detailed results, including potential management actions and their costs and benefits, are still preliminary but the issues and the broad management needs and possible actions that have been identified are highly informative. The process that has been developed provides a valuable framework for future refinement and implementation of EAF. The project also considered the applicability of a number of tools and activities that would be important for effective progress in implementation of EAF, in particular methods for improved decision making, incentives to encourage implementation, institutional requirements and research needs.

 Coffin, A
Wairoa River and coastal environment issues and options paper: prepared for Ngati Kahu resource development and management
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic, 1995

 Cole, R.G.
Distributional relationships among subtidal algae, sea urchins and reef fish in northeastern New Zealand
School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, 1993
Abstract: Interactions among large brown macroalgae, sea urchins, and fishes were investigated in northeastern New Zealand during the period 1988 - 1993. The Cape Rodney to Okakari Point Marine Reserve was the site of many of these investigations. The patterns of abundance of large brown macroalgae and urchins down depth gradients over a wide geographic range were compared with those reported from earlier studies, and 3 major trends were identified. First, the fucoid alga Carpophyllum flexuosum now occurs at many sites which are exposed to wave action, in contrast to earlier studies. This alga occurred most abundantly on urchin-grazed coralline flat areas. Second, at four sites in the Marine Reserve, the densities of the echinometrid urchin Evechinus chloroticus decreased with increasing depth, rather than reaching maximal densities at mid-depths, as had previously been described. Finally, at sites of decreased exposure to wave action, the coralline flats habitat did not occur at all, and dense stands of. C. flexuosum occurred, in conjunction with the ubiquitous laminarian alga, Ecklonia radiata.

 Cole, R. G.; Foster, D.; Grace, R.
Port of Tauranga biological monitoring report 93/2. Results of the baseline and first post-dredging surveys of the biological monitoring programme
Publisher unknown, 1993
Abstract: This report presents data concerning the diversity and densities of four major groups of organisms: Amphipoda, Bivalvia, Brachyura (crabs), and Gastropoda. These comprise a major portion of the total fauna identified. Data for other taxa will be presented in a subsequent report.

 Cole, R. G.; Foster, D. M.; Grace, R.
Port of Tauranga dredge spoil disposal monitoring programme
Publisher unknown, 1994
Abstract: This report presents final results from an extensive benthic ecology monitoring programme relating to capital dredging and spoil dumping undertaken by Port of Tauranga Limited in 1992. Dredging was from the shipping channels and material was dumped on the inner shelf in 22-28 m water depth during January - June 1992.

 Cole, R. G.; Foster, D. M.; Grace, R.
Port of Tauranga dredge spoil disposal monitoring programme
Publisher unknown, 1995
Abstract: This report presents final results from an extensive benthic ecology monitoring programme relating to capital dredging and spoil dumping undertaken by Port of Tauranga Limited in 1992. Dredging was from the shipping channels and material was dumped on the inner shelf in 22-28 m water depth during January - June 1992.

 Cole, R.G.; Hull, P.J.; Healy, T.R.
Assemblage structure, spatial patterns, recruitment, and post-settlement mortality of subtidal bivalve molluscs in a large harbour in north-eastern New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Fresh water Research, 2000
Abstract: Based on a 6-month period survey, this study evaluated the infaunal bivalve mollusc on the flood tidal delta of Tauranga Harbour, North-eastern New Zealand. The objective of the study was to understand the shellfish resources, to assess the magnitudes of temporal and spatial variability in abundances, and to identify potentially important processes. A total of 31 bivalve taxa were identified from 27 sites surveyed. The study found that the species richness per site varied significantly with time and space, ranging from 0 to 9. Density of several abundant species also varied greatly in time. The study also found that the abundances of the three species that dominated the fauna (Paphies australis, Tawera spissa, and Ruditapes largillierti) had characteristic spatial scales on the order of 200 m. Comparisons of size frequency distributions for individual sites suggested that mortality or emigration in the first year of benthic life was high. Substantial populations of bivalves occur on Centre Bank, and the most abundant of these are greatly influenced by events early in their lives.

 Colford, J.M.; Wade, T.J.; Schiff, K.C.; Wright, C.C.; Griffith, J.F.; Sandhu, S.K.; Burns, S.; Sobsey, M.; Lovelance, G.; Weisberg, S.B.
Water Quality Indicators and the Risk of Illness at Beaches with Nonpoint Sources of Faecal Contamination
Epidemiology, 2007
Abstract: Background: Indicator bacteria are a good predictor of illness at marine beaches that have point sources of pollution with human fecal content. Few studies have addressed the utility of indicator bacteria where nonpoint sources are the dominant faecal input. Extrapolating current water-quality thresholds to such locations is uncertain. Methods: In a cohort of 8797 beachgoers at Mission Bay, California, we measured baseline health at the time of exposure and 2 weeks later. Water samples were analyzed for bacterial indicators (enterococcus, faecal coliforms, total coliforms) using both traditional and nontraditional methods, i.e., chromogenic substrate or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A novel bacterial indicator (Bacteroides) and viruses (coliphage, adenovirus, norovirus) also were measured. Associations of 14 health outcomes with both water exposure and water quality indicators were assessed.

 Collins, R.; McLeod, M.; Donnison, A.; Close, M.; Hanly, J.; Horne, D.; Ross, C.; Davies-Colley, R.; Bagshaw, C.; Matthews, L.
Best management practices to mitigate faecal contamination by livestock of New Zealand waters
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 2007
Abstract: This paper summarises findings from the Pathogen Transmission Routes Research Programme, describing pathogen pathways from farm animals to water bodies and measures that can reduce or prevent this transfer. Significant faecal contamination arises through the deposition of faeces by grazing animals directly into waterways in New Zealand. Bridging of streams intersected by farm raceways is an appropriate mitigation measure to prevent direct deposition during herd crossings, whilst fencing stream banks will prevent access from pasture into waterways by cattle that are characteristically attracted to water. Riparian buffer strips not only prevent cattle access to waterways, they also entrap microbes from cattle and other animals being washed down-slope towards the stream in surface runoff. Microbial water quality improvements can be realised by fencing stock from ephemeral streams, wetlands, seeps, and riparian paddocks that are prone to saturation. Soil type is a key factor in the transfer of faecal microbes to waterways. The avoidance of, or a reduction in, grazing and irrigation upon poorly drained soils characterised by high bypass flow and/or the generation of surface runoff, are expected to improve microbial water quality. Dairyshed wastewater should be irrigated onto land only when the water storage capacity of the soil will not be exceeded. This “deferred irrigation” can markedly reduce pollutant transfer to waterways, particularly that via subsurface drains and groundwater. Advanced pond systems provide excellent effluent quality and have particular application where soil type and/or climate are unfavourable for irrigation. Research needs are indicated to reduce faecal contamination of waters by livestock.

 Commission for the Environment
New Zealand wetlands management policy
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 1986
Abstract: This policy is designed to 'show the way', rather than to specify particular actions. It starts by defining a wetland in the context of this policy, followed by a brief history of wetlands and their modification in New Zealand. It then goes on to state that wetland management must consider causes and consequences beyond the wetland boundary, and that the government must act as an advocate for wetland preservation, and play its role in wetland management by promoting research and fostering awareness of wetland values, as well as acknowledge its responsibility to future generations to preserve possible future benefits that may not be recognised at the present moment. Accordingly, this statement sets out Government policy as a guide to all agencies and individuals who manage and make decisions in relation to the use of wetlands throughout New Zealand. The provisions of this policy are to be reflected in local, regional and national policies and legislation that relate to wetlands and their management.
 Connell, S. D.; Irving, A. D.
Integrating ecology with biogeography using landscape characteristics: a case study of subtidal habitat across continental Australia
Journal of Biogeography, 2008
Abstract: This report aims to redress a current limitation of local ecological studies (i.e. piecemeal information on specific taxa) by integrating existing ecological knowledge with quantifiable patterns in primary habitat (i.e. composition, distribution and cover) from local to continental scales. By achieving this aim, we sought to provide a biogeographical framework for the interpretation of variation in the ecology of, and threats to, subtidal rocky landscapes. Location: The subtidal rocky coast of continental Australia, with longitudinal comparisons spanning > 4000 km of southern coast (115 degrees 03' E-153 degrees 60' E) between latitudes of 33 degrees 05' S and 35 degrees 36' S, and latitudinal comparisons across 26 degrees 40' S to 37 degrees 08' S of eastern Australia. Methods: The frequency and size of patches of major benthic habitat were quantified to indicate contemporary function (ecology) and to establish patterns that may result from contrasting regional-scale processes (biogeography). This was achieved by quantifying the composition and patchiness of key subtidal habitats across the continent and relating them to the known ecology of subsets of locations in each region. A nested design of several spatial scales (1000s, 100s, 10-1 km) was adopted to distinguish patterns at local through to biogeographical scales.

 Connell, S. D.; Russell, B. D.
The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests
Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences, 2010
Abstract: Predictions about the ecological consequences of oceanic uptake of CO2 have been preoccupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks the direct effects of CO2 on non-calcareous taxa, particularly those that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts. We used two experiments to investigate whether increased CO2 could exacerbate kelp loss by facilitating non-calcareous algae that, we hypothesized, (i) inhibit the recovery of kelp forests on an urbanized coast, and (ii) form more extensive covers and greater biomass under moderate future CO2 and associated temperature increases. Our experimental removal of turfs from a phase-shifted system (i.e. kelp- to turf-dominated) revealed that the number of kelp recruits increased, thereby indicating that turfs can inhibit kelp recruitment. Future CO2 and temperature interacted synergistically to have a positive effect on the abundance of algal turfs, whereby they had twice the biomass and occupied over four times more available space than under current conditions. We suggest that the current preoccupation with the negative effects of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers overlooks potentially profound effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms.

 Constantine, R.; Baker, C.S.
Monitoring the commercial swim-with-dolphin operations in the Bay of Islands
Department of Conservation, New Zealand, 1997  
 Abstract: Bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were observed and photographed during their encounters with swim-with-dolphin operations in the Bay of Islands from March, 1994 to March, 1995. From observation of 156 commercial trips, lasting an average of 3.1 hours, there was an 86% success rate in encountering one or both species of dolphins. Bottlenose dolphins changed their behaviour on 32% of approaches by the operator's boat, and common dolphins changed their behaviour on 52% of approaches. Of all groups of dolphins encountered, 37% were exposed to at least one swim attempt. A total of 163 swim attempts were observed, including multiple attempts with the same pod. Bottlenose dolphins had a sustained interaction with swimmers on 25% (n = 33) of encounters involving swims, and common dolphins had a sustained interaction on 21% (n = 6). The remaining swims resulted in neutral or avoidance behaviour. Dolphin responses to swimmers were dependent to some degree on swimmer placement, with in-line placement eliciting the highest risk of avoidance. A total of 265 bottlenose dolphins were individually identified by photographs of nicks and scars on their dorsal fins. The majority (76%) were re-sighted on more than one occasion, but the Bay of Islands does not seem to be the exclusive home range of any individuals. Future research should attempt to determine the dolphins' home range, habitat use, and the impact of changes in their environment. In the long-term, it is possible that dolphins will become familiar with the boats and swimmers and increase their approaches or, conversely, develop a cumulative aversion towards them.

 Constantine, R.
Effects of tourism on marine mammals in New Zealand
Department of Conservation, New Zealand, 1999    
Abstract: There has been a rapid growth in marine mammal based tourism around the world, because marine mammals have a wide appeal for many people and are readily found around many coastal areas and are therefore readily accessible. Marine mammal based tourism in New Zealand is a wide-ranging, species-diverse industry with an increasing demand for permits from land, boat and air-based platforms. A total of 74 permits at 26 sites have been issued from Maunganui to Stewart Island. The region with the most concentrated effort is Kaikoura. Past and current research projects in New Zealand evaluating the effects of tourism on marine mammals are reviewed. The only current ones deal with the New Zealand sea lions of the Catlins, and Northland’s bottlenose dolphin population. In New Zealand, toothed cetaceans and pinnipeds form the basis of the marine mammal based tourism industry. We are one of few countries which permit swimming with dolphins and seals.

 Constantine, R.; Brunton, D.H.; Baker, S.C.
Effects of tourism on behavioural ecology of bottlenose dolphins of northeastern New Zealand
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 2003
Abstract: This is a study of the tourism effects on the behaviour of bottlenose dolphin in the Bay of Islands. Through field observation by following on dolphin focal groups using independent research boat during the period of 1996 to 2000, the study found that permitted dolphin-watching boats have the most effect on the behaviour of dolphin in the region. More specifically, resting behaviour decreased and milling behaviour increased when the permitted boats were present. Though threshold on the number of permits cannot be recommended, the study suggested that, to minimise the effects of the permitted boats on dolphin, no further permits should be issued. A likely wide home range was also suggested based on individuals that were photographed between Doubtless Bay in the north and Tauranga in the south.

 Constantine, R; Russell,K.; Gibbs,N.; Childerhouse, S.; Baker, C.S
Photo-identification of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in New Zealand waters and their migratory connections to breeding grounds of Oceania
Marine Mammal Science, 2007
Abstract: Humpback whales pass along the coast of New Zealand as they migrate between summer feeding grounds in Antarctic waters and winter breeding grounds in the tropical waters of the South Pacific. the Oceania (South Pacific) region (Garrigue et al. 2000). Humpback whales in New Zealand waters were individually identified from photographs of marks and coloration on the ventral surface of the fluke (Katona et al. 1979). Data were collected opportunistically from 1994 to 2004 and during a dedicated survey in the Tory Channel entrance to Cook Strait in June 2004 (Gibbs and Childerhouse 2004). During these dedicated surveys boat-based researchers were (when weather conditions permitted) directed by land-based observers to whales for the purposes of photographing the whales and collecting tissue samples. All good quality photographs have been compiled in a catalogue of New Zealand humpback whale flukes and matched by at least three independent observers for any resightings within or between years. A total of thirty-four whales have been photographed in New Zealand waters on fifteen independent occasions over the eleven years of data collection. The majority of whales (20 individuals) were photo-identified during the 2004 dedicated survey in Cook Strait (Gibbs and Childerhouse 2004). Of the thirty-four whales, four have been resighted: two individuals in New Caledonia (Garrigue et al. 2000), one individual in New Zealand, and one in Vava’u, Tonga.

 Cooper; H.; Quinn, J. M.; Morrison, D.
Te Awa O Waitao Stream Restoration Project Annual Report 1st July 2007 to 30th June 2008
Te Awa O Waitao Stream Restoration Project Steering Group, 2008
Abstract: Te Awa O Waitao Stream Restoration Project is happening in Welcome Bay and is a FRST-finded joint NIWA, Tangata Whenua and NZ Landcare Trsut project. The aim is to restore the locally significant Waitao Stream and wider catchment by using a combination of western science and traditional Māori knolodge. The project spans the entire Waitao from the Otawa Ranges to the mouth of the River (te Kopu a Parera) and was initiated by Nga Papaka O Rangataua. The project is managed by a Joint Steering Group made up of Hinenui Cooper (Nga Papaka O Rangataua, John Quinn (NIWA) and Robyn Skelton (NZ Landcare Trust). The project Kaitiaki is Tom Cooper. This is the third formal annual report for the project. It summaries activity of the period 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2008.

 Costanza, R.; d'Arge, R.; de Groots, R.; Farber, S.; Grasso, M.; Hannon, B.; Limburg, K.; Naeem. S.; O'Neill, R. V.; Paruelo, J.; Raskins, R. G.; Sutton, P.; van den Belt, M.
The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital
Nature, 1997
Abstract: Estimates values for ecosystem services for ecologists, economists, policy makers and the general public. A comparison between the estimated rate of change of value and changes in ecosystem services; Ecosystem functions; Natural capital; Valuation methods; Ecosystem values, markets, and gross national product; Global land use; Methodology.

 Cotton, C. A.
Accidents and interruptions in the cycle of marine erosion
Geographical Journal, 1951
Abstract: Discusses coastal processes common to New Zealand coastlines for example progradation, longshore drift, retrogradation, Flandrian transgression, and interuptions to these processes. Areas specifically discussed include Breaker Bay, near Wellington; North Auckland peninsula (Waitakere Ranges right up to the Hokianga Harbour); Bay of Plenty coastline (Tauranga Harbour to Opotiki).

 Coutts, A. D. M.; Forrest, B. M.
Development and application of tools for incursion response: Lessons learned from the management of the fouling pest Didemnum vexillum
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2007
Abstract: Didemnum vexillum is type of sea squirt. Sea squirts have a mobile larval life stage but then adhere to hard surface where they spend the adult stage of their lifespan. They are a marine invertebrate which pump seawater through their bodies, hence the name ‘squirt.’ When this species was identified in New Zealand for the first time in 2001, there was confusion as to whether this was a native or invasive species (Coutts & Forrest, 2007). It is “crypotogenic spp.” or origins unknown. It has been established that the barge vessel the Steel Mariner was most likely a vector for the introduction and spread of this sea squirt around New Zealand (Coutts & Forrest, 2007). The Steel Mariner was in the Tauranga Harbour in May 1992 and late June 2000 (Coutts & Forrest, 2007). The sea squirt is invasive, has the potential to out compete other species and the potential to smother mussels. The confusion surrounding its origins slowed efforts to control this species in the Picton Harbour (Coutts & Forrest, 2001). This sea squirt is established in the Tauranga Harbour (BOPRC, n.d.). This paper provides a chronology of events surrounding the initial detection and spread of the ascidian, and describes the development of incursion response tools for the different substrata that were infected. The treatments included smothering soft-sediment habitats with uncontaminated dredge spoil, wrapping wharf piles with plastic, smothering rip-rap habitats using a geotextile fabric, and various other approaches based on water blasting, air drying or chlorine dosing. While many of the response methods were completely effective at eliminating D. vexillum from different substrata, the programme overall failed to eradicate the organism from the region. The reasons for this failure are documented, and the important lessons learned are highlighted, as a contribution to the successful management of invasive species in the future.

 Cram, F.
Maori and Science: three case studies
Auckland UniServices Limited, University of Auckland, 2002
Abstract: In March of 2002 Dr Fiona Cram, IRI, was approached by the Royal Society of New Zealand about a small piece of research that they wanted to commission about Mäori views of science and technology. The result was Dr Cram’s proposal to the Royal Society that the research focus on three case studies of Mäori communities/groups who had had reasonably positive interactions with scientists. The findings of the present research should go some way toward facilitating better interactions between Tangata Whenua and the Scientific Community. Three case studies were therefore conducted with three Mäori groups that have problem-solved an issue by the engagement with science/technology and matauranga Mäori (indigenous knowledge). From this research Good Practice Guidelines were developed.

 Creese, R.; Hooker, S.; de Luca, S.; Wharton, Y.
Ecology and environmental impact of Musculista senhousia (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1997
Abstract: The introduced, mytilid bivalve Musculista senhousia (Asian date mussel) occurs on the east coast of New Zealand and Auckland region. Eighteen sites were searched within the Tamaki Estuary: six had extensive mats of mussels and three contained small, isolated clumps. Core samples were taken monthly during 1994/95 from two of the mat-forming populations. Densities reached 16 000 m-2 at Bucklands Beach and 5000 m-2 at Farm Cove. Both populations were dominated by a single cohort of mussels. Mussels grew to about 20 mm in 12 months, after which growth virtually ceased. Recruitment was sporadic into existing mats, but occurred adjacent to the monitored mat at Bucklands Beach in April 1995. The area occupied by the initial mussel bed at this site decreased by 60% over 1 year. Further core sampling revealed significantly fewer macrofaunal invertebrates under mussel mats compared to control samples taken from areas of beach without mussels. Infaunal bivalves were most adversely affected by M. senhousia, showing an 8-fold decrease in abundance within mats compared to cores in the control area. Our results reveal that M. senhousia in the Auckland area has similar life history features to those reported from populations outside New Zealand. We suggest that the adverse environmental effects caused by M. senhousia are likely to be local and short-lived.

 Crisp, P.; Daniel, L.; Tortell, P.
Mangroves in New Zealand: trees in the tide
GP Books, 1990
Abstract: This book informs in a simple and easy understanding way generally about mangroves, about mangroves in New Zealand, about their distribution and values as well as about protecting mangroves and how mangroves influence the food chain. Also contains many illustrations and pictures.

 Croad, B.
Mangrove Review
Catalyst Management Services Ltd, 2007
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to provide the findings of the mangrove review report and advice on implementation of the recommendations so as to improve relationships with the Tauranga Estuary Care Groups.

 Cromarty, P.; Scott, D. A. (eds)
A directory of wetlands in New Zealand
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 1995
Abstract: The Directory describes 73 wetlands and wetland complexes that meet the criteria for international importance (it is not a comprehensive listing of ALL wetlands in New Zealand). The wetlands have been selected on the basis of criteria developed in relation to the Ramsar Convention. Although special attention is paid to the importance of the wetlands for wildlife, all wetland values including water storage, flood control, coastal protection and fisheries production have been taken into consideration.

 Crozier, J. J.
Macrobenthic communities of the Matakana Banks and Inner Shelf
University of Waikato, 2001
Abstract: To date there have been a limited number of studies describing New Zealand’s coastal soft sediment benthic communities. These systems are however affected by anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. disposal of dredge spoil, trawling) and in order ti identify potential impacts, the natural variation in community structure must be known. The aim of this study is to characterise the spatial and temporal variation in benthic community composition on the ebb tidal delta (Matakana Banks) and the inner shelf around the southern entrance channel of Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand. This study was undertaken in two parts the first of which involved the sampling of 30 sites on the Matakana Banks during summer (8 – 10 February, 20-21 March 2000) and winter (20-21 September 2000). The objective of these surveys was to examine the spatial variability in macrofauna, and relate community composition to various sediment properties (organic content, chlorophyll a, pheophytin pigment and depth). Five surveys of seven sites were also undertaken between February and October 2000 in order to investigate the temporal variability between sites.

 Cryer, M.
Northland and Coromandel scallop stock assessment for 2001
Ministry of Fisheries; NIWA, 2002
Abstract: The Northland and Coromandel scallop fisheries were surveyed by dredge in April-May 2001 to predict start-of-season recruited biomass. Areas thought unlikely to support commercial fishing in the 2001 season were not surveyed. Dredge efficiency was not estimated directly, but assumed based on precautionary treatment of historical estimates in each fishery. For the Northland fishery, start-of-season biomass (scallops 100 mm or more shell length) was estimated at 871 t greenweight with a C.V. of 27%, or 118 t meatweight at an assumed average recovery rate of 13.5% (meat h m green). For the Coromandel fishery, start-of-season biomass (scallops 90 mm or more shell length) was estimated at 577 t greenweight with a C.V. of 27%, or 78 t meatweight at an assumed average recovery rate of 13.5%. For comparison with historical surveys, start-of-season biomass (scallops 100 mm or more shell length) was estimated as 195 t with a C.V. of 29%. Estimates of recruited biomass in 2001 are among the lowest on record for both fisheries, although slightly better than the most recent surveys in both fisheries (1998 in the Northland fishery and 1999 in the Coromandel fishery). Using estimates of Fo.1 h m stochastic yield-per-recruit models as reference rates of fishing mortality, yield for the Northland fishery was estimated as CAY = 45 t (meatweight), and yield for the Coromandel fishery was estimated as CAY = 28 t. Provisional Yield (F'Y) for the Coromandel fishery was estimated (for historical comparison) as PY = 11 t (meatweight). Estimates of biomass and yield for both fisheries are sensitive to assumptions about dredge efficiency in 2001, to exclusion of areas of low scallops density (where it is assumed uneconomic to fish), and to the selection of a reference rate of fishing mortality. The gazetted conversion factor of 8 (equivalent to a recovery of 12.5%) also leads to lower estimates of yield in meatweight than the estimated recovery rate of 13.5%.

 Cummings, V. J.; Thrush, S. F.; Hewwitt, J. E.; Turner, S. J.
The influence of the pinnid bivalve Atrina zelandica (Gray) on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in soft-sediment habitats
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 1998
Abstract: The pinnid bivalve Atrina zelandica (Gray) is found in muddy to sandy soft-sediment habitats around the coast of New Zealand. Because of their size and their often dense and patchy distribution, Atrina can add complex physical structure to soft-sediment habitats. We compare diversity and structure of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages inside and outside of natural patches of Atrina, at two different sites in north eastern New Zealand: a muddy harbour site and a sandy open coast site. Clear differences between macrofaunal assemblages in and out of Atrina patches were noted at both sites, with stronger effects apparent at the sandy site. Further studies incorporating the effects of suspension feeders on both macrofaunal communities and local hydrodynamic conditions simultaneously are needed to help our understanding of how they modify their local habitat. Our results also illustrate the importance of identifying differences in relationships with location so that habitat variation features can be encompassed in the design of experiments investigating the influence of key species on benthic communities.

 Cummings, V.; Thrush, S. F.; Hewitt, J.; Funnell, G.
Variable effect of a large suspension-feeding bivalve on infauna: experimenting in a complex system
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2001
Abstract: In soft-sediment habitats there are many examples of species that modify their habitat and thus can be expected to have an important influence on macrobenthic community structure. The large, suspension-feeding pinnid bivalve Atrina zelandica adds complexity to soft-sediment habitats by protruding into the water column and altering boundary-flow conditions and by providing predation refuges and substrates for epifaunal settlement. To investigate effects of A. zelandica density on macrobenthic community composition, we conducted a density manipulation experiment in 4 different habitat types in and around Mahurangi Estuary, New Zealand. Our experiment incorporated a comparatively large spatial and temporal scale: each habitat was separated by at least 1.75 km, and was sampled 3 times over 16 mo. Based on previous work, we predicted that macrofaunal community responses would differ between sites and would be stronger at sandy sites than muddy sites, and that variability in site hydrodynamic and sediment characteristics would help explain differences in benthic community responses to the density manipulation. While these predictions were supported, there was considerable temporal variation in the response. We also made predictions of the response of different aggregate macrofaunal groups to the A. zelandica manipulation (i.e. total numbers of individuals and taxa, suspension feeders, deposit feeders, top 2 cm dwellers, and mobile, short and long-lived species). Whether these predictions were supported varied spatially as well as temporally. To be able to generalise results, larger scale experiments, conducted at more than 1 site and at more than 1 time, are generally considered preferable. Although our A. zelandica manipulation experiment has these attributes, the results have demonstrated that the influence of this large suspension feeder on the associated macrofaunal community is not simple (except perhaps in sandy, relatively non-tidal environments), and illustrates our limited success in ‘reducing’ the complexity of this system using a field experiment. However, we were able to demonstrate that interactions between A. zelandica, site hydrodynamic conditions and sediment characteristics were all important in influencing macrofauna, rather than there being a simple A. zelandica density–macrofauna relationship. Thus, where multi-species interactions, indirect effects, non-linear biotic/abiotic interactions and threshold effects play an important role, specific experiments may not always lead to generalisable results, simply because the system is too complex.

 Dahm, J.; Healy, T.R.
A study of dredge spoil dispersion off the entrance to Tauranga Harbour
University of Waikato, Dept. of Earth Sciences, 1980
Abstract: Nearshore and shelf sediments near the entrance to Tauranga Harbour were studied in relation to the nature and character of sediment dispersing from dredge spoil dumping grounds.

 Dahm, J.
The geomorphic development, bathymetric stability and sediment dynamics of Tauranga Harbour
University of Waikato, 1983
Abstract: This thesis looks at the physiography of Tauranga Harbour and the evolution of the Tauranga-Katikati estuarine lagoon complex.

 Dahm, J.; Jenks, G.; Bergin, D.
Community based dune management for the mitigation of coastal hazards and climate change effects: A guide for local authorities
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2005
Abstract: This report is exclusively concerned with shore parallel dunes formed along the landward edge of a beach, where windblown sand is trapped by vegetation. These dunes are known as foredunes, with the most seaward generally called the frontal or active foredune (sometimes with a small incipient dune further seaward) and those further landward as relict foredunes (Hesp, 2000) or back dunes.

Darby, D. J.; Williams, R. O.
A new geodetic estimate of deformation in the central volcanic region of the North Island, New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 1991
Abstract: Deformation immediately north of Lake Taupo in the Central Volcanic Region of the North Island, New Zealand, is shown from repeated geodetic surveys to vary in both orientation and magnitude. While the relatively extensional direction is nearly east-west in the west of the region, the northeast-southwest dextral shear component increases eastward, so that the relatively extensional direction becomes nearly north-south in the east of the region. The magnitude of maximum engineering shear strain varies spatially between 0.4 and 1.0 x 10(-6)/yr. Previous geodetic analyses have not had sufficient spatial resolution to study this type of variation. Under an assumption of no length change parallel to the trend of faulting, the extension rate across a 40 km zone north of Lake Taupo is estimated to be 18 +/- 5 (1 s.e.) mm/yr. This is consistent with an upper bound of 20-30 mm/yr for the last 4 Ma, from the age distribution of low-potash and esites, and is significantly greater than previous geodetic estimates. The deformation is generally consistent with geological inferences, but not necessarily with seismological data from earthquakes below magnitude 5, which are themselves difficult to interpret consistently.

 D'Archino, R.; Nelson, W. A.
Marine brown algae introduced to New Zealand waters: first record of Asperococcus ensiformis (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales, Chordariaceae)
New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 2006
Abstract: The article presents a baseline information of the brown alga Asperococcus ensiformis from New Zealand waters. This alga species is considered as an introduced species, which is the closely related of A. bullosus. The thalli of this alga are membranous, flattened and ribbon-like that grow in clumps up to 60 centimetre high and 8-20 millimetre wide. Furthermore, it can be distinguished from similar native species by a combination of anatomical and morphological characters.

 Davies-Colley, R.
Some field techniques used in a study of Tauranga Harbour
Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society, 1976
Abstract: A summary of the main field methods of research used in a sedimentological study of part of Tauranga Harbour is presented. The research concentrated on the tidal inlet which is the entrance to the Port of Tauranga. SCUBA divers have carried out direct observations of the sea bed and installed various monitoring devices. Sediment sampling programmes posed problems which were largely overcome by using a dredge-type sampler. Tidal currents in the boundary layer were measured one metre above the harbour floor at a number of monitoring stations. Direct measurements of sediment discharge have been made with various devices which trap mobile sediment. Studies of tidal bedforms of both ripple and megaripple scale have been carried out. These investigations have provided a picture of sediment transport processes and patterns near the entrance to the Port of Tauranga.

 Davies-Colley, R. J.
Sediment Dynamics of Tauranga Harbour
University of Waikato, 1976

Davies-Colley, R.J.; Healy, T.R.
Sediment and hydrodynamics of the Tauranga Entrance to Tauranga Harbour
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1978
Abstract: To relate the textural characteristics of the bottom sediments of a tidal inlet to hydrodynamics, 45 sediment samples from the Tauranga Entrance to Tauranga Harbour were analysed for textural parameters, and tidal currents and waves were monitored. Tidal currents dominate sediment transport processes near the Tauranga Entrance although swell waves are significant on the ebb tidal delta, and wind waves may influence intertidal sediments within the harbour. The bulk of the sediment is probably derived from marine sand from the Bay of Plenty continental shelf, but tidal currents and waves have changed its textural character. In areas of swift tidal currents, particularly in the inlet channel itself, sediment is coarser, more poorly sorted, and more coarsely skewed than that in areas of slower currents.

 Davies-Colley, R.J.; Healy, T.R.
Sediment transport near the Tauranga entrance to Tauranga Harbour
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1978
Abstract: Davies-Colley and Healy investigated how the tidal movements impact on the transport of sediment along the bottom and suspended in the water in the Tauranga Harbour entrance. This research was conducted in 1978 and rates of transport may be different today due to changes in the landforms and changes in how much sediment is coming into the Harbour off the land. Davies-Colley and Healy do not estimate the amount of sediment in the harbour in 1978 but rather looked at the erosion and deposition action of the waves on sediment movement. Underneath the water, sediment is moved along the sea bed by the waves forming patterns of dunes and smaller ripple on the bed as the sediment moves. Sediment is also entrained in the water and is transported as suspended sediment. Sediment transported out of the harbour tends to move towards south-east ward along the coast of Matakana Island and potentially back into the inlet. Bars of deposited sediment develop due to decreases in the amount of sediment transported by wave action away from the inlet and the position of those bars is due to the power and direction of the waves. More sediment tends to be moved in the channel areas due to acceleration of tidal water as the current moves faster there. While sediment in the bar areas tends to be less mobile. New studies on sediment in the Tauranga Harbour could look at the findings of this study to compare changes over time.

 Davis, R.A.; Healy, T.R.
Holocene coastal depositional sequences on a tectonically active setting: southeastern Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
Sedimentary Geology, 1993
Abstract: More than 70 cores, a high-resolution seismic survey, and SCUBA observations provide the basis for the interpretation of depositional environments that accumulated during the Quaternary in the southeastern Tauranga Harbour area of the North Island, New Zealand. Three lithofacies comprise this sequence; in ascending order they are pumiceous sand and gravel, shelly mud and shelly sand. The pumiceous sand is interpreted as fluvial and fan deposits of Pleistocene to early Holocene age with a radiometric date of 9420 ± 100 yr BP near the top of the unit. The shelly mud represents low-energy estuarine deposition of essentially normal marine salinity in a valley-like setting. This unit dates at 8100 ± 80 yr BP. The extensive overlying shelly sand thickens seaward and represents wave-dominated shoreface conditions much like the present nearshore environment. Radiometric dating of samples within the present harbour are all between 6000 and 7000 yr BP and those seaward of the spit to Mt. Maunganui are less than 3370 ± 100 yr BP. The barrier spit that has attached to the volcanic headland began accumulating about 4000-5000 years ago.

 Dawbin, W.H.
The Migrations of Humpback Whales which Pass the New Zealand Coast
Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 1956
Abstract: The migration route of humpback whales in New Zealand waters as indicated by approximately 9,000 sightings is described. North-bound humpbacks pass mainly along the eastern coastlines of New Zealand, plus one group passing through Cook Strait to the western side of the North Island and another passing the western side of Stewart Island and round the south-west corner of the South Island before leaving the coast. South-bound humpbacks pass mainly along the western coast of New Zealand, forming a large aggregation near the south-west corner of the South Island, while others follow the east coast of the North Island as far as East Cape, but few occur elsewhere along the eastern coastlines or pass through Cook Strait. Seasonal variation in commencing dates, duration of migration, tune of peak and the periods taken by equivalent proportions of the humpback groups are described for 36 seasons in Cook Strait, three at Whangamumu and four at Centre Island. The rate of migration, times of arrival, peak concentration and latitudinal spread of the migrating stock, at phases of the passage from Antarctic to tropical waters and return, are calculated and discussed.

 Dawson, S. M.
The New Zealand Whale and Dolphin Digest: the official Project Jonah guidebook
Brick Row Publishing Co, 1985

 de Lange, W. P.
Wave climate and sediment transport within Tauranga Harbour, in the vicinity of Pilot Bay
University of Waikato, Department of Earth Sciences, 1988
Abstract: This thesis looks at the effect of waves on sediment transport and deposition in the southern part of the Harbour, particularly in the vicinity of the Port. The study looks at tides, sedimentation, wind and pressure in Pilot Bay. A profile of the sediments of the area is also provided.

 de Lange, W.P.; Healy, T.R.
Wave Spectra for a shallow Meso-tidal Estuarine Lagoon: Bay of Plenty, New Zealand
Journal of Coastal Research, 1990
Abstract: The wave climate of Tauranga Harbour, a shallow meso-tidal estuarine lagoon in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, was investigated between 1984 and 1987. Two main groups of waves were identified, viz., high frequency waves, f>0.0714 Hz (period < 14 s), and low frequency waves, f<0.0714 Hz, excluding the semi-diurnal tidal oscillations. The low frequency waves were analysed by spectral techniques only. The high frequency component of the wave climate is dominated by wave energy transmitted through the harbour entrance, with -70% of the energy in the average harbour spectrum attributable to this source. The harbour entrance filters the wave energy passing through it, restricting most of the energy to a relatively narrow frequency band. Wind-waves generated within the harbour also contribute a significant proportion of the wave energy within the average spectrum. A spectral relationship, based on the JONSWAP spectral form, was derived and this is presented. Seiches occur frequently within the harbour, usually in association with wind speeds exceeding 9.5 m.s over the harbour, but also in response to external forcing by tsunamis and large external swell waves. The seiche frequencies are not controlled by the harbour channels or dredged shipping basins. The largest oscillations within the harbour are caused by tsunamis and storm surges.

 de Lange, W. P.; Healy, T. R.
Renourishment of a flood-tidal delta adjacent beach, Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
Journal of Coastal Research, 1990
Abstract: Pilot Bay Beach, a flood-tidal delta adjacent beach in Tauranga Harbour, has demonstrated a history of continual erosion. During a maintenance dredging programme in early 1984, the Bay of Plenty Harbour Board renourished the southeastern end of the beach with 2.1 x 104 m³ of dredge spoil. The bay had been included in the Tauranga Harbour Study, which provided baseline data for a study of the behaviour of the renourished beach. Tidal currents in Pilot Bay are affected by a flood-tidal eddy, which results in a dominant ebb-directed flow for most of each tidal cycle. However, this flow rarely exceeds the sediment entrainment velocity. Additional energy for the entrainment of sediment is provided by waves, particularly on the beach. Sediment used for renourishment was very similar in composition and texture to the original beach sediment, except for a change in the dominant shell species, and the presence of pumice. The pumiceous clasts within the dredge spoil, being of very low density, were rapidly transported away from the renourished beach. The sediment transport direction predicted by the dominant tidal flow direction, and by the spatial distribution of sediment texture, was confirmed by observed beach profile changes. Sediment moved from the renourished end of the beach, towards the northwestern end, where long term accretion may occur. During the period April 1984 to October 1987, the average rate of erosion of the renourished beach was 2.52 m³dayˉ¹, giving an expected life of less than 13 years.

 de Lange,W. P.
Wave climate for No. 1 Reach, Port of Tauranga, Tauranga Harbour
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waikato, 1991

 de Lange, W. P.
Extremal significant wave analysis: entrance to Tauranga Harbour
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waikato, 1993

 de Lange, W. P.; de Lange, P. J.
An appraisal of factors controlling the latitudinal distribution of mangrove (Avicannia marina var. resinifera) in New Zealand
Journal of Coastal Research, 1994
Abstract: The latitudinal distribution of mangroves (Avicennia marina var. resinifera) in New Zealand has traditionally been considered to be controlled by climatic stress, particularly air temperature. This paper reviews the influence of climate factors, particularly frost, and the dispersal of mangrove propagules on the present-day mangrove distribution. There is no strong evidence to show that the southern limit of mangroves in New Zealand is a function of climatic conditions, or that the present mangrove distribution is in equilibrium with climatic conditions. It is probable that coastal processes affecting propagule dispersal are more important controls on the mangrove distribution within New Zealand than climatic factors. In particular, tidal asymmetry inhibits mixing of east and west coast mangrove populations around northern-most New Zealand, and low coastal current velocities and large distances between suitable habitats makes natural establishment south of present limits unlikely.

 de Lange, W. P.; Healy, T. R.
Assessing the stability of inner shelf dredge spoil mounds using spreadsheet applications on personal computers
Journal of Coastal Research, 1994
Abstract: Three methods, viz. the Hands and Allison (1991) method, predictions of sediment threshold, and predictions of sediment transport rate, are used to assess the long term stability of dredge spoil mounds on the inner shelf and compared with available observations of their behaviour. These methods are chosen for simplicity and ease of implementation with a spreadsheet application on a personal computer. Three main approaches were followed: an evaluation of the annual, and daily limits, of onshore-offshore sediment movement near the spoil mound; a comparison between the theoretical thresholds of sediment motion and the annual wave height and period joint distribution; and an evaluation of sediment transport rates and directions using semi-empirical relationships. The Hands and Allison (1991) method had the smallest data requirements: mean and standard deviation of the annual significant wave height distribution; and the median grain-size at the mid-point of the shoal zone. Analysis of sediment threshold and comparison with wave climate required data concerning the annual joint wave height and period probability distribution, and sediment textural characteristics. Sediment transport rate calculations required the most detailed information about the site: annual joint wave height and period probability distribution; sediment textural characteristics; and mean unidirectional current velocity. Using a spreadsheet, it is relatively easy to simulate a range of values (that span the likely conditions) with all three methods, if the necessary data are not available. All the methods produced predictions consistent with available observations, and all were straightforward to implement within a spreadsheet application. The choice of method depends on the information required, with each method needing different data and providing contrasting but complementary outputs.

 de Lange, W. P.; Gibb, J. G.
Seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal variability of storm surges at Tauranga, New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2000
Abstract: A database of storm surge events was constructed for two sites in south-eastern Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand, for the period 1960-mid 1998. Storm surge events were defined as occasions when the residual level between the predicted high tide level and recorded water level exceeded 10 cm. The residual was determined at high tide only (every 12.4 h), with 954 storm surge events found over the 38.4-year period analysed. The magnitude and frequency of storm surge events varied considerably between 1960 and 1997, with a marked shift evident c. 1976. The period from 1976 to 1997 corresponded to a reduced storm surge frequency and magnitude, compared to the period 1960-76. Wavelet analysis of 125 years of wind storm annual frequencies showed strong fluctuations at inter-decadal periods. Therefore, it is suggested that the frequency of storm surges varies in response to a coherent inter-decadal oscillation in surface temperature over the Pacific Ocean, known as the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), that reversed phase c. 1976. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) also affected the number of days exceeding the storm surge threshold per year, with La Nina events being associated with more storm surge: days. The presence of significant decadal variations indicates that annual exceedence probability distributions may misrepresent the storm surge hazard. The available data indicates that there are extended periods when the IPO increases the hazard and others when the hazard is decreased. Existing analyses of storm surge hazard for the Bay of Plenty have largely been based on data obtained during a period of reduced hazard. Conditions that were associated with larger and more frequent storm surges during 1960-76 may be expected to prevail again over the next few decades.

 de Lange, W. P.; Cochran, U. & Cervelli, A. (ed.)
Coastal hazards of the Bay of Plenty
Geological Society of New Zealand, 2007
Abstract: This is the handout that accompanied one of the field trips for this conference. The trip examined the advances in our understanding of coastal processes and hazards in the context of coastal development in the Bay of Plenty. This handout outlines the development of Coastal Hazard Zones (CHZs) in New Zealand, and accordingly the current understanding of coastal processes and how to mitigate coastal hazards in terms of coastal management. Aspects of coastal hazards covered in this field trip were:
  • Beach responses to wave forcing (morphodynamics);
  • Beach response to water level changes, particularly due to storm surge and storm tide, and sea level rise;
  • Climatic variability and its influence on the coast; and
  • Tectonic effects.

 de Luca-Abbott, S.; O'Shea, S.
Monitoring the effects of mangrove removal in Tauranga Harbour
Boffa Miskell; Auckland University of Technology; Tauranga City Council, n.d
Abstract: This is a power point presentation giving an overview on the removal of mangroves in Tauranga Harbour. Not date given. TCC applied to BOPRC for resource consent to remove mangroves seaward of the Mangrove Management Boundary. Consent was given, but monitoring of environmental effects was required as part of the consent. This presentation summarises the data after one year of monitoring. Conclusions indicate that there is little evidence of adverse ecological effects related to mangrove removal, however, ongoing monitoring is required to confirm this.

 De Mora, S.J.; Demeke, G.
Chemical fractionation of lead in intertidal sediments from Manukau Harbour, Auckland, New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1990
Abstract: Four cores were collected from intertidal sites in the Manukau Harbour, Auckland, New Zealand. Cores were sub-sectioned under nitrogen; total lead was determined following an acid digestion. Pb was also determined in each of six chemical phases resolved by differential extraction procedures. Total Pb concentrations in surficial sediments varied in the range 3.5-98 mg kgˉ¹, with the highest level observed at Little Huia. Although background Pb concentrations are difficult to define, it is apparent that discharges from the northern effluent outfall at the New Zealand Steel Works, Glenbrook, have approximately doubled sedimentary Pb concentrations in the immediate vicinity. Analyses of Pb partitioning indicate that no diagenetic processes are operating to remove Pb from the sediments. At Little Huia, Pb preservation within the sedimentary record is accompanied by transformations from iron/ manganese oxide to organic/sulfide phases.

 de Winton, M.D; Clayton, J.S.
Subtidal Ulva status within Tauranga Harbour
NIWA, 1995

 de Winton, M.D; Clayton, J.S.; Hawes, I.
Subtidal Ulva status within Tauranga Harbour
NIWA, 1996

 de Winton, M.D; Clayton, J.S.; Hawes, I.
Sea lettuce dynamics and ecophysiology in Tauranga Harbour, Bay of Plenty
NIWA, 1998
Abstract: This report presents the results of studies on sea lettuce in Tauranga Harbour, undertaken for Environment B.O.P, Tauranga District Council and Western Tauranga District Council between 1994 and 1998. It also includes relevant information from a Government funded research programme.

 Dee, M.D.
The Grey-faced Petrel and the Predator
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic, 2001
Abstract: The aim of this research was to band, weigh and measure the wing length of as many grey-faced petrels at Mauao during the breeding season. This took place during the months of July- October. This report was written and will some be given to the Department of Conservation (DOC), who now look after the grey-faced petrels on Mauao, inherited from the Ornithological Society of New Zealand (OSNZ), Waikato region. The objective of the research was to look at the effect that predators have had on the grey-faced petrels at Mauao, who those predators were and how they got there. It also looked at the predator control programme that is in effect on Mauao. The results were then collated to see if this programme has had an effect on the grey-faced petrel population. The method for this research was to go out at dusk and either call in the grey-faced petrel by using the war whoop method or look for them on the ground near borrows. The birds were then weighed, banded if they were not already, and then their wing length was measured. This data was then collated on a field work sheet. In 1995 Hugh Clifford from OSNZ, Waikato region, with the help of the Tauranga DOC, Tauranga District Council and Environment Bay of Plenty developed a predator control programme based at Mauao. The results showed that in the banding season the predator control programme was implemented, the amount of chicks caught and banded rose considerably. With an average of 3.8 chicks being banded five years previous to the programme, and an average of 30.5 chicks being banded in the following five years.

 Department of Conservation
New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement
Department of Conservation, 1994
Abstract: The Resource Management Act 1991 established a new coastal management regime based on a partnership between the Crown and the community through their regional and local authorities. The Act (Section 56) requires that at all times there shall be a New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement. The Policy Statement will guide local authorities in their day-to-day management of the coastal environment. In 1992, after consultation with interested parties, the Minister of Conservation released a draft New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement for submissions/ consultation. This report is the outcome of that process.

 Department of Conservation
Proposed New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement
Department of Conservation, 2008
Abstract: Under the Resource Management Act, most decision-making about what happens on the coast is devolved from central to local government. The NZCPS is the key statement of national policy that guides planning and resource consent decisions for the coastal environment. Fourteen years ago the first NZCPS came into force. It has done good service, providing sound guidance on important matters such as public access to the coast, the preservation of natural character, and the discharge of sewage to the sea. In fourteen years, however, much has changed and much has been learned. Coastal development has accelerated and shows no sign of slowing down. It is time to take advantage of experience, look ahead, and see how we can improve on existing policy and strike the right balance between use, development and protection of our precious coastal environment.

 Department of Conservation
Rare visitor marks start of seal season
Infonews, 2009
Abstract: A press release about a Leopard seal sited on the edge of Waimapu Estuary, near Tauranga Airport, August 2009. The article also gives some information about on the last reported sighting of a leopard seal in Tauranga (2006 - so relatively uncommon), as well as general information about their habitat and diet; it then goes on to talk about the New Zealand fur seal, which is more common to Tauranga.

 Department of Conservation
New Zealand Costal Policy Statement
Department of Conservation, 2010
Abstract: The purpose of the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement (NZCPS) is to state policies in order to achieve the purpose of the Resource Management Act in relation to the coastal environment of New Zealand.

 Department of Conservation
Department of Conservation Central Database: Cetacean sightings in the Tauranga Area
Department of Conservation, 2010
Abstract: This is a national catalogue of biodiversity inventory and monitoring projects, administered by the Department of Conservation. It includes research projects managed by various organisations, institutions and the community, not just DOC projects. A typical project report contains information about what species were monitored, what methods were used and who to contact - it does not contain detailed monitoring results.

Department of Conservation
Department of Conservation Central Database: Cetacean Strandings within the Tauranga Area
Department of Conservation, 2010
Abstract: This is a national catalogue of biodiversity inventory and monitoring projects, administered by the Department of Conservation. It includes research projects managed by various organisations, institutions and the community, not just DOC projects. A typical project report contains information about what species were monitored, what methods were used and who to contact - it does not contain detailed monitoring results.

 Department of Conservation
East Coast Bay of Plenty Pesticide Summary
Department of Conservation, 2011
Abstract: Pesticide summaries are regularly updated lists of animal pest operations using vertebrate pesticides that occur on lands managed or administered by DOC. Each Conservancy (region) issues a pesticide summary every four months. They tell hunters, and other people, where pesticides are being used in the Conservancy. The public can then choose, based on clear information, where to go, and which areas to avoid. Some Conservancies also issue pesticide summaries that concentrate on specific areas that are heavily used by the public, like Forest Parks and National Parks. Pesticides are categorised into HAVE BEEN LAID and WILL BE LAID, give the location and total area of application, what poison is used, dates of application, and the expected time to warning sign removal.

 Didziulis, V.
NOBANIS Invasive Alien species fact sheet - Teredo navalis
NOBANIS (European Network on Invasive Alien Species), 2007
Abstract: This is a factsheet listed on the NOBANIS (European Network on Invasive Alien Species) website about the species Teredo navalis, commonly known as naval shipworm. This species is very destructive to any wooden constructions in the marine environment. The factsheet gives information on taxonomy, native range, alien distribution (focused around Europe only), ecology (habitat, reproduction and life cycle, dispersal and spread), its impact on indigenous organisms, economic and societal effects, and management approaches.

 Donald, R.
Personal communication with Rob Donald, Science Manager Bay of Plenty Regional Council
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2011
Abstract: This is the personal communication between one of our researches and Rob Donald, Science Manager, from the Bay of Plenty Regional Council. The discourse is focused around clarifying past and future mangrove removal in Tauranga Harbour (resource consents, specific areas and total area of mangrove removal).

 Donnison, A.M., Ross, C.M.
Animal and human faecal pollution in New Zealand Rivers
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1999
Abstract: Sentinel freshwater mussels (Hydridella menziesi) were immersed in rivers at sites impacted by faecal pollution. The indicator bacterium, was recovered from all mussels including those at a forest control site, but concentrations were highest at sites impacted by either treated sewage or treated meat-processing waste water, or by inputs from dairy farms. The three pathogens sought were recovered from mussels, except those at the forest (control) site: and Campylobacter coli at treated sewage sites; Salmonella typhimurium and C. jejuni at treated meat-processing waste water sites; and C. jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica at sites impacted only by dairy farms. The FRNA bacteriophage concentration was high in mussels impacted by sewage or sheep-processing waste water but was low when the input was only from dairy farms. Mussels up to 23 km from a sewage discharge contained a high concentration of FRNA suggesting that there could be a health risk due to viruses, although the water did not exceed recommended guidelines. Pathogens were also sought in untreated waste waters. C. jejuni and C. coli were recovered from both sheep-processing and beef-processing waste waters and the only sewage isolate identified was confirmed as. Salmonella spp. were recovered from all waste waters, with S. typhimurium phage type 135, isolated from a sample of meat-processing waste water, and from mussels immersed 1 and 5 km down stream of that plant’s discharge. Y. enterocolitica was recovered from most samples of animal waste water. It appears that pathogens are introduced into New Zealand rivers by all major sources of faecal contamination.

 Donovan, W.F.; Hatton, C.; Barker, M.F.; Larcombe, M.F.
Ecological monitoring survey of the lower reaches of the major Bay of Plenty Rivers, the Ohau Channel, and Parts of Tauranga Harbour
Bioresearches Ltd, Winter 1974
Abstract: This report gives the results of initial sampling of this ecological monitoring survey. Other reports give the results of later sampling done in the summer and the winter of 1975. Survey sites in the Tauranga Harbour include the Rereatukahia Inlet, Wairoa Estuary, Waikareo Inlet, Waimapu Inlet and Welcome Bay. Fauna recorded include members of mollusca (bivalves), gastropods, crustacea, polychaetes, coelenterate, chiton and nemertean.

Donavon, W.F.;
Hatton, C.;Barker, M.F.; Larcombe, M.F.;
Ecological monitoring survey of the lower reaches of the major Bay of Plenty rivers, the Ohau Channel, and parts of Tauranga Harbour
Bioresearches Ltd , Summer 1975
Abstract: This report contains the results of the second sampling of stations in the Tauranga Harbour and Whakatane River Estuary as part of a continuing monitoring programme. Initial sampling was undertaken in the winter of 1974, and the results are contained in the report ‘Ecological monitoring survey of the lower reaches of the major Bay of Plenty Rivers, the Ohau Channel, and parts of the Tauranga Harbour (Winter 1974) (Bioresearches Ltd). This second sampling of the selected stations, undertaken during January 1975, is intended to illustrate seasonal ecological changes on the study areas by comparison with the Winter 1974 data. Long term, or non-seasonal changes are also identified where possible. The selection of the stations sampled is discussed in the Winter 1974 report. Sample sites located in the Tauranga Harbour include Rereatukahia Inlet, Wairoa Estuary, Waikareo Inlet, Waimupu Inlet and Welcome Bay. This survey measured changes in faunal distribution and abundance, density of algae and sediment B.O.D.5 levels (a useful parameter for identification of the ‘condition’ of a soft sediment habitat with respect to organic content of the sediment). Findings for marine areas:
  • Most of the changes in faunal distribution and abundance since the Winter 1974 survey are considered to be a result of natural variation, whether part of a long term fluctuation, or spatial variation in abundance.
  • The density of algae, particularly Gracilaria secundata, has shown considerable seasonal variation in several harbour areas. Areas recommended for algal growth are Welcome Bay, the Rereatukahia Inlet and Waikareo Inlet.
  • In areas with very high sediment B.O.D.5 level, there is obvious deterioration of the sediment environment, but the test is considered to be of most potential use in identifying those areas which would be sensitive to increased organic loading, and in monitoring long term change in the surface sediment.

 Dos Santos, V.; Matheson, F. E.; Pilditch, C. A.
Seagrass in bloom
Water & Atmosphere, 2008
Abstract: Rare discovery - seagrass flowering in Tauranga Harbour. Flowers of Zostera muelleri, an indigenous marine plant discovered from a dense, exposed, intertidal seagrass patch on estuarine sandflats near the centre of the Tauranga Harbour. Discovered by Virginie Dos Santos while she was collecting information for her doctorate research investigating damage to seagrass meadows caused by black swan grazing and pollution. The seagrass flower cluster (or inflorescence) is small and inconspicuous, so flowering may be more common than realised. Further research will continue into understanding the flowering of seagrass in NZ.

 Dowding, J.E., Moore, S.J.
Habitat networks of indigenous shorebirds in New Zealand
Department of Conservation (New Zealand), 2006
Abstract: This report reviews current knowledge and collates information on the important regions, habitats and sites used by seven endemic shorebird species in New Zealand: New Zealand pied oystercatcher (Haematopus finschi),variable oystercatcher (Haematopus unicolor), pied stilt (Himantopus himantopus leucocephalus), black stilt (H imantopus novaezelandiae), New Zealand dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), banded dotterel (Charadrius bicinctus) and wrybill (Anarhynchus frontalis). For each taxon, we outline its status, range and numbers, and describe important breeding and non-breeding sites. We summarise information on movement patterns and links between breeding and non-breeding areas. We also identify sites where there is significant overlap between these endemic species and Arctic-breeding migrant waders. Many of the wintering sites are important to sever al of these taxa. Nineteen sites (mostly well-defined harbours or estuaries) are identified as having national significance to endemic shorebirds, and 15 of these have been previously identified as wetlands of national significance. Key regions for breeding or wintering shorebirds were northern North Island east-coast beaches and estuaries; large northern North Island harbours (particularly Kaipara, Manukau and Firth of Thames); northern South Island estuaries, particularly Farewell Spit and Tasman Bay; smaller estuaries and lagoon s on the east coast of the South Island; and large braided riverbeds in the central South Island. Shorebird flocks are often highly mobile. Little is known about the important feeding areas for many taxa, and little attention has been given to potential threats in non-breeding areas. All significant populations of all indigenous shorebird species come into contact with Arctic-breeding migrant waders to some degree.

 Dowding, J.E., Davis, A.M.
New Zealand dotterel (Charadrius obscurus) recovery plan, 2004-14
Department of Conservation (New Zealand), 2007
Abstract: The New Zealand dotterel (Charadrius obscurus) is a threatened endemic shorebird that is classified internationally as Endangered. There are two widely separated subspecies. The northern subspecies (C. o. aquilonius) breeds on or near the coast of the North Island (mainly north of 39°S) and numbered c. 1700 individuals in October 2004. It is classified in New Zealand as Nationally Vulnerable. The southern subspecies (C. o. obscurus) was once widespread in the South Island, but now breeds only inland on Stewart Island/Rakiura. In April 2005, it numbered c. 250 individuals, and it is classified in New Zealand as Nationally Critical. The present plan replaces the first recovery plan for the species, which was published in 1993. This new plan expires in 2014. Summaries are provided of the ecology of the species, its past and present distributions, the threats it faces, and the history of management and research. Long-term and short-term goals for both subspecies are given. Proposed objectives for the northern subspecies include continuing existing protection programmes, expanding protection to new sites, and increasing community involvement and other-agency partnerships in management. There is also a need to identify and protect important breeding, roosting and feeding habitat from degradation using advocacy and statutory protection. Proposed objectives for the southern subspecies include continuing current management on Stewart Island/Rakiura, maintaining the mustelid free status of the island, and investigating more cost-effective methods of cat (Felis catus) control. A review of the first recovery plan, details of management techniques used at North Island sites and a timeline for the actions proposed in this plan are included in appendices.

 Drinkwater, L.E., Snapp, S.S.
Nutrients in Agroecosystems: Rethinking the Management Paradigm
Advances in Agronomy, 2007
Abstract: Agricultural intensification has greatly increased the productive capacity of agroecosystems, but has had unintended environmental consequences including degradation of soil and water resources, and alteration of biogeochemical cycles. Current nutrient management strategies aim to deliver soluble inorganic nutrients directly to crops and have uncoupled carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in space and time. As a result, agricultural ecosystems are maintained in a state of nutrient saturation and are inherently leaky because chronic surplus additions of nitrogen and phosphorus are required to meet yield goals. Significant reductions of nutrient surpluses can only be achieved by managing a variety of intrinsic ecosystem processes at multiple scales to recouple elemental cycles. Rather than focusing solely on soluble, inorganic plant-available pools, an ecosystem-based approach would seek to optimize organic and mineral reservoirs with longer mean residence times that can be accessed through microbially and plant-mediated processes. Strategic use of varied nutrient sources, including inorganic fertilizers, combined with increases in plant diversity aimed at expanding the functional roles of plants in agroecosystems will help restore desired agroecosystem functions. To develop crops that can thrive in this environment, selection of cultivars and their associated microorganisms that are able to access a range of nutrient pools will be critical. Integrated management of biogeochemical processes that regulate the cycling of nutrients and carbon combined with increased reservoirs more readily retained in the soil will greatly reduce the need for surplus nutrient additions in agriculture.

 Du Fresne,S.P.; Grant, A.R.; Norden, W.S.; Pierre, J.P.
Factors affecting cetacean bycatch in a New Zealand trawl fishery
Department of Conservation (New Zealand), 2007
Abstract: Incidental catch of cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global phenomenon, occurring across a range of fishery types and affecting numerous species. In some cases such interactions have led to population declines, and may threaten viability of cetacean populations or species. In New Zealand, common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) bycatch often occurs during trawling for the commercial fish species jack mackerel (Trachurus novaezelandiae). Data gathered by New Zealand fisheries observers between the 2001/2002 and 2004/2005 fishing years (i.e. 01 October 2001 to 30 September 2005) were collated and examined to identify risk factors contributing to common dolphin bycatch in the jack mackerel trawl fishery. Exploratory analyses suggested that geographical area (represented by Fisheries Management Areas) had the most influence on dolphin bycatch. All observed bycatch events occurred in three out of eight Fisheries Management Areas. Using classification tree analysis, fishing depth emerged as an important predictorvariable for dolphin bycatch during trawl tows for jack mackerel. Other potentially important predictors were total winch time and light conditions. Because of a large amount of missing data, extreme caution must be taken in generalising these results, but recommendations are made for future observer programmes and data management.

 Du Fresne, S.P.
Evaluation of the impacts of finfish farming on marine mammals in the Firth of Thames
Environment Waikato, 2008
Abstract: Aquaculture in New Zealand is dominated by the Greenshell™ mussel, however it is expected that finfish aquaculture will expand in coming years. Environmental Waikato is scoping a plan change that would allow finfish aquaculture to be developed within existing aquaculture management areas (AMA) currently used for mussel farming. This report seeks to identify those marine mammal species most likely to be at risk from such activities. Impacts, associated risks, and ecological consequences are identified and discussed. The marine mammal species most likely to be encountered in the Firth of Thames include: short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis); bottlenose dolphins (Tursiopstruncates); killer whales (orca; Orcinus orca); Bryde’s whales (Balaenopteraedeni/bry dei); and various species of beaked whales. Additionally, the neighbouringHauraki Gulfcontains a high diversity of marine mammals, including those already   listed, as well as: humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae); southern right whale (Eubalena australis); pilot whales (Globicephala sp.); and minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata/bonaerensis). Three possible effects of finfish aquaculture on marine mammals were identified: entanglement; habitat exclusion; and vessel disturbance. Entanglement will be a greater risk for small cetaceans such as short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins. Entanglement risk is currently well-managed by the aquaculture industry in areas of New Zealand where salmon farms exist, and there have been only three known cases of dolphin fatalities after becoming entangled in predator nets in over 25 years. Operational practices and net designs have improved such that entanglement should be a minor risk, however this will need to be monitored.Habitat exclusion and vessel disturbance are potential risks for many marine mammals that utilise the Firth. A paucity of data makes assessment difficult; however clear mitigation strategies exist should future surveys and monitoring determine these risks to be significant.

 Duarte, C. M.
The future of seagrass meadows
Environmental Conservation, 2002
Abstract: Seagrasses cover about 0.1–0.2% of the global ocean, and develop highly productive ecosystems which fulfil a key role in the coastal ecosystem. Widespread seagrass loss results from direct human impacts, including mechanical damage (by dredging, fishing, and anchoring), eutrophication, aquaculture, siltation, effects of coastal constructions, and food web alterations; and indirect human impacts, including negative effects of climate change (erosion by rising sea level, increased storms, increased ultraviolet irradiance), as well as from natural causes, such as cyclones and floods. The present review summarizes such threats and trends and considers likely changes to the 2025 time horizon. Present losses are expected to accelerate, particularly in South-east Asia and the Caribbean, as human pressure on the coastal zone grows. Positive human effects include increased legislation to protect seagrass, increased protection of coastal ecosystems, and enhanced efforts to monitor and restore the marine ecosystem. However, these positive effects are unlikely to balance the negative impacts, which are expected to be particularly prominent in developing tropical regions, where the capacity to implement conservation policies is limited. Uncertainties as to the present loss rate, derived from the paucity of coherent monitoring programmes, and the present inability to formulate reliable predictions as to the future rate of loss, represent a major barrier to the formulation of global conservation policies. Three key actions are needed to ensure the effective conservation of seagrass ecosystems: (1) the development of a coherent worldwide monitoring network, (2) the development of quantitative models predicting the responses of seagrasses to disturbance, and (3) the education of the public on the functions of seagrass meadows and the impacts of human activity.

 Dudley, B. D.; Barr, N. G.; Shima, J. S.
Influence of light intensity and nutrient source on delta C-13 and delta N-15 signatures in Ulva pertusa
Aquatic Biology, 2010
Abstract: Stable isotopes are increasingly used to infer sources of nutrient enrichment and trophic linkages in coastal marine systems, although the utility of these tools often depends upon a predictable expression of delta N-15 and delta C-13 signatures by primary producers. Accordingly, we examined how tissue delta N-15 and delta C-13 values change in the common coastal marine alga Ulva pertusa Kjellman under contrasting light and nutrient treatments. In Expt 1, we manipulated nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment and light availability in a factorial design and found that: (1) delta C-13 values in the tissue of U. pertusa depended upon interactions between light and nutrient availability, and there was no clear, overarching relationship between tissue delta C-13 values and growth rate; and (2) these effects yielded a substantial (11.6 parts per thousand) range of variation in delta C-13 values. In Expt 2, we manipulated natural light (shaded versus unshaded) and nitrogen form (nitrate versus ammonium) in a factorial design and found that (3) delta N-15 of U. pertusa tissue was closely tied to delta N-15 of source nitrogen under all treatments and (4) delta N-15 differences between high and low light treatments were largest when U. pertusa was supplied with ammonium (3.7 parts per thousand), relative to nitrate (0.8 parts per thousand). The variation in delta C-13 values has implications for studies that use stable isotopes to infer trophic relationships in coastal marine environments, where gradients in nutrient concentration and light availability are common. The comparatively small range of delta N-15 values expressed in U. pertusa supplied with nitrate confirms that this species represents a good proxy for delta N-15 of biologically available nitrogen in nitrate-dominated coastal seawater.

Dudley, B.D.; Shima, J.S.
Algal and invertebrate bio-indicators detect sewage effluent along the coast of Titahi Bay, Wellington, New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2010
Abstract: The article presents a study on the use of Carpophyllum maschalocarpum, Amphoroidea media, and Petrolisthes elongates as bioindicators at Titahi Bay wastewater treatment plant (TWTP) in Wellington, New Zealand. The study uses N and C ratios to examine the bioindicators. It reveals the importance of multiple-isotope and multi-species bioindicator approaches in sewage dispersal patterns and integration of sewage-derived nutrients into food webs.

 Edgar, G. J.; Barrett, N. S.
Short term monitoring of biotic change in Tasmanian marine reserves
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 1997
Abstract: Fishes, large invertebrates and macroalgae inside four marine reserves and at associated external reference sites off the eastern Tasmanian coast were censused between 1992 and 1993 shortly after the declaration of the reserves. Changes in several population parameters during the first year of protection in the largest Maria Island Marine Reserve were examined using two different ANOVA designs. The densities of rock lobsters and sea urchins and the mean sizes of wrasse, leatherjackets, abalone and rock lobsters all increased within the reserve relative to outside over the first year; however, only the increases in density of sea urchins and mean abalone size were statistically significant at the 5% level. The census methodology and statistical techniques nevertheless were considered sufficiently sensitive to reveal any long term change following future censuses. A doubling in population numbers of most large fishes and invertebrates, or a 10% increase in the mean size of animals, is required to indicate that significant change has occurred.

 Elder, J.R. (Ed.)
The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden 1765-1838 senior chaplain in the colony of New South Wales and superintendent of the mission of the Church missionary society in New Zealand
Coulls, Somerville, Wilkie and A. H. Reed for the Otago University Council, 1932
Abstract: Rev. Samuel Marsden was a chaplain, magistrate, agriculturalist, and missionary who founded the Christian mission in New Zealand. Reaching New Zealand nearly half a century after Cook's first visit, Marsden arrived with the definite intention of giving Maori knowledge of the religion and industrial arts of Western Europe. Marsden's journals, so far as New Zealand is cocerned, cover the period from 1814 when the Mission was first established at the Bay of Islands to 1838 when he died. The transcripts were used by Elder for his book 'The Letters and Journals of Samuel Marsden 1765-1838' published in Dunedin in 1932. Dr T.M. Hocken spent years of his life collecting Marsden material, as he intended to write a book dealing with the journals and life of Marsden. The collection includes transcripts of Marsden journals and correspondence, as well as biographical papers, publications and illustrations.

 Elliott, A. H.; Green, M. O.; Altenberger, A.; Basher, L.
Simplified Tool for Estuary Erosion/Deposition Risk Assessment
Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, 2007
Abstract: Increased sediment runoff from the land poses serious threats to estuaries in New Zealand that need to be managed to enhance and protect estuarine ecosystems. In the past, sediment risks have been assessed using detailed physically based erosion and deposition models. However, a recent survey found that resource managers have a need for relatively simple and accessible tools for conducting risk assessment associated with sediments (at both the long-term and event timescales) as a function of land-use and potential mitigation measures. To satisfy this need we have developed a prototype decision support tool for application by resource managers. The tool allows for capturing the summary properties of more detailed models, or the expert-based assessment of system component behaviour, within a desktop based tool. The tool enables the land manager to rapidly identify changes in risk and costs associated with modifications to proposed land-uses and mitigation scenarios. In this paper, we summarise the findings from the user needs survey, outline the design of the decision support framework, and present the features of a prototype model.

 Elliott, S.; Jowett, I.G.; Suren, A.M.; Richardson, J.
A guide for assessing effects of urbanisation on flow-related stream habitat
NIWA, 2004
Abstract: Urban streams in New Zealand are becoming increasingly valued, not only for their recreational amenity value but also for their intrinsic biological value. Consequently, there is increasing interest in methods for assessing and predicting the effects of urbanisation on stream biota and in measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of urbanisation on aquatic ecosystems. This guide describes how urbanisation affects stream flows, and how such changes in flow affect stream habitat and stream biological communities. It provides a process and techniques to quantify the effect of urbanisation on flows (baseflow and storm flow) and the stream channel (channel width and bed mobilisation), and methods for assessing the effects of these habitat changes on stream communities. Methods to mitigate the effects of urbanisation on flow-related aspects of stream habitat are also summarised.

 Elliott, S.; Parshotam, A.; Wadhwa, S.
Tauranga Harbour sediment study: catchment model results
NIWA, 2010
Abstract: In order to better understand sediment sources and fate of sediment entering Tauranga Harbour, Environment Bay of Plenty contracted NIWA to conduct the Tauranga Harbour Sediment Study. The outcome fo the study will be to appropriately manage growth and development now and in the future. This knowledge will assist in adapting and prioritising management rules and practices for the catchment and harbour with a full understanding of likely sedimentation effects for changes expected in land-use and the anticipated effects of climate change to 2051.

 Ellis, J.; Cummings, V.; Hewitt, J.; Thrush, S. F.; Norkko, A.
Determining effects of suspended sediment on condition of a suspension feeding bivalve (Atrina zelandica): results of a survey, a laboratory experiment and a field transplant experiment
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2002
Abstract: The horse mussel Atrina zelandica (Gray) is a large, suspension feeding pinnid bivalve, common in coastal and estuarine areas of northern New Zealand. As a suspension feeder, Atrina is likely to be influenced by suspended sediment loads. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine the effect of short-term elevations in turbidity levels, such as those commonly recorded during storms, on the physiological condition and clearance rates of Atrina. We also conducted a field survey and a 3-month transplant experiment at multiple sites along a gradient of increasing suspended sediment load in a New Zealand estuary. Laboratory clearance rates of Atrina declined above a threshold suspended sediment concentration, and Atrina physiological condition at the end of this experiment was lower in high cf. low turbidity treatments. Decreases in Atrina condition were detected after exposure to elevated levels for only 3 days. The field survey and transplant experiment provided empirical evidence of a strong, negative effect of increasing suspended sediment flux on the physiological condition of Atrina. We suggest that relationships between the physiological condition of suspension feeders and sediment settling flux could provide a link between sediment inputs, which commonly occur as a result of catchment runoff during rainfall events, and the ecological health of estuarine and shallow coastal areas. Our study also demonstrated that Atrina have a natural distribution limit controlled by suspended sediment load. Thus, there is potential for larger-scale functional and structural effects on benthic communities in estuarine and coastal areas with high rates of sedimentation.

 Ellis, J.; Nicholls, P.; Craggs, R.; Hofstra, D.; Hewitt, J.
Effects of terrigenous sedimentation on mangrove physiology and associated macrobenthic communities
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2004
Abstract: In New Zealand, one species of mangrove, Avicennia marina var. australasica, forms a characteristic and often an extensive feature of the tidal mudflats of harbours and estuaries. Within their natural range, mangroves have generally increased in abundance in New Zealand over the last 100 yr in response to increased sedimentation associated with concurrent changes in catchment land use. However, little information is available about the ecological consequences of changes in the extent of mangrove habitats under varying sedimentation regimes. We therefore conducted a study to determine the effects of high sedimentation rates on mangrove plant communities and associated benthic community composition. We selected an estuary that is experiencing high rates of sedimentation (as high as 23 mm yr–1) and associated increases in mangrove area. We recorded clear differences in both plant and benthic communities along a gradient of decreasing sedimentation. Mangrove architecture (such as height and density of plants) and health (as measured by chlorophyll a fluorescence) were linked to high mud content of the sediment and elevated sedimentation patterns. Mangrove plants at the upper landward sites, characterised by a high percentage of mud and high total nutrients (total phosphorus [TP] and total nitrogen [TN]) and organic content, were taller than those at the seaward sites and had a larger number of pneumatophores as well as the greatest number of new seedlings. However, benthic macrofaunal diversity and abundance within the mangrove habitats were lower than expected, and clear functional differences were found between habitats with differing sedimentation patterns. Sites with high sedimentation rates had lower numbers of suspension feeders, low macrobenthic diversity, and were dominated by deposit-feeding polychaetes and oligochaetes. The diversity and density of benthic macrofaunal communities was, however, lower than that of sandflat communities for both mangrove habitats and adjacent intertidal mudflats in these sheltered areas, suggesting a response to the increased silt/clay from sedimentation rather than to the mangroves themselves. Our study demonstrates the potential for functional and structural effects on benthic communities on a larger spatial scale in estuarine areas experiencing high rates of sedimentation.

 Ellis, K; Ngatai, K; Piahana, T; Dickson, B; Palmer, H; Smallman, R; Bennett, P; Kuka, N; Coffin, A; Cooper, H; Kaiawha, D
Te Awanui Tauranga Harbour Iwi Management Plan
Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Te Rangi, 2008
Abstract: The Te Awanui, Tauranga Harbour, Iwi Management Plan was commissioned by the Tauranga Moana iwi, being a statement of Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pükenga values and perspectives with regard to harbour management. This document is prescribed as an indigenous tool created by tangata whenua to carry out their function as kaitiaki and rangatira over their ancestral waters, Te Awanui (Tauranga Harbour). Te Rūnanga o Ngaiterangi Iwi Trust is the tribal iwi authority for the hapū of Ngāi Te Rangi. Te Rünanga o Ngāti Ranginui is the tribal iwi authority for the hapū of Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pūkenga ki Tauranga Trust is the tribal iwi authority for the hapū of Ngāti Pūkenga. This plan has been produced by members of the three iwi in conjunction with the whānau, hapū and iwi of Tauranga Moana as an Iwi Management Plan for Te Awanui. Te Awanui is a traditional name for the Tauranga Harbour, given by the whänau, hapū and iwi of Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pūkenga for the Tauranga Harbour. Hence, the revival of the name, Te Awanui is given in title for this document. This is the beginning of a series of kōrero, meetings with other stakeholders to implement the objectives, policies and actions within. The Tauranga Moana Iwi reserve the right to re submit an annual review of this document as required.

 Ellison, J.C.
Impacts of Sediment Burial on Mangroves
Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1999
Abstract: Aerial roots are a common adaptation of mangrove trees to their saline wetland habitat, allowing root respiration in the anaerobic substrate. While mangroves flourish on sedimentary shorelines, it is shown here that excess input of sediment to mangroves can cause death of trees owing to root smothering. Descriptions of 26 cases were found in the literature or described here, where mangroves have been adversely affected by sediment burial of roots. The impacts ranged from reduced vigour to death, depending on the amount and type of sedimentation, and the species involved. There are insufficient data to establish specific tolerances. For rehabilitation, where the disturbance was a past event, the elevation change must be assessed in selection of species for replanting, and field trials are required in areas where rapid accretion is an ongoing problem.

 Erseus, C.
Two new species of the marine genus Limnodriloides and a record of Tubificoides fraseri Brinkhurst (Oligochaeta: Tubibicidae) from New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1989
Abstract: Limnodriloides thrushi n. sp., from subtidal muddy sands in Otago Harbour, South Island, New Zealand, and L. insolitus n. sp., from a mudflat in Tauranga Harbour, North Island, New Zealand, are described. The first species has both (grooved) spermathecal and (bifid) penial setae, and bears its maleporesonapair of bulbous protuberances in segment XI. The latter has a pair of styliforrn penes, of a kind unique for the genus. The estuarine, parthenogenetic (or self-fertilising?), species Tubificoides fraseri Brinkhurst, 1986, previously known from North America and Australia, is also reported from Manukau Harbour, Auckland, New Zealand.

 Faroon, O.M.; Keith, L.S.; Smith-Simon, C.; De Rosa, C.T.
Polychlorinated biphenyls: human health aspects
World Health Organisation, 2003
Abstract: The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, prepared this CICAD on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) based on the updated Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (ATSDR, 2000). In addition, several articles based on the source document can be consulted for details on each of several health end-points considered important in this CICAD (Faroon et al., 2000, 2001a,b). Information on the nature of the peer review and the availability of the source document is presented in Appendix 1. Information on the peer review of this CICAD is presented in Appendix 2. This CICAD was approved as an international assessment at a meeting of the Final Review Board, held in Ottawa, Canada, from 29 October to 1 November 2001. Participants at the Final Review Board meeting are listed in Appendix 3. The International Chemical Safety Card (ICSC 0939) for polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254), produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS, 2000), has also been reproduced in this document. PCBs are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds that consist of two benzene rings linked by a single carbon-carbon bond, with from 1 to all 10 of the hydrogen atoms replaced with chlorines. PCBs have been produced commercially since 1929. They have been used in plasticizers, surface coatings, inks, adhesives, flame retardants, pesticide extenders, paints, and microencapsulation of dyes for carbonless duplicating paper.

 Fengming, T.
Aspects of hopper washings disposal and storm runoff water quality from the log handling areas at the Port of Tauranga
University of Waikato, 1993

 Fengming, T.
Environmental aspects of storm runoff discharge from a timber port, Tauranga, New Zealand
University of Waikato, 1997

 Ferguson, C. M.; Coote, B. G.; Ashbolt, N. J.; Stevenson, I. M.
Relationships between indicators, pathogens and water quality in an estuarine system
Water Research, 1996
Abstract: This study examined water and sediment samples for a range of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms from six sites in an urban estuary, Sydney, Australia. Water quality was affected by rainfall and sewage overflows which were associated with significant increases in the concentration of faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci, Clostridium perfringens spores, F-RNA bacteriophage, Aeromonas spp., Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. However, in sediments, only faecal coliform concentrations were significantly increased by rainfall, although sewage overflow again resulted in increased concentrations of faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci, C. perfringens spores and Aeromonas. Isolation of Salmonella appeared to coincide with wet weather events and occasionally identical serotypes were detected in sediments at several locations within the estuary. However, isolations of enteric virus were sporadic and did not appear to be exclusively related to wet weather events. C. perfringens was identified as the most useful indicator of faecal pollution and was the only indicator significantly correlated to the presence of pathogenic Giardia (r = 0.41, p < 0.05) and the opportunistic bacterial genus Aeromonas (r = 0.39, p < 0.05). F-RNA bacteriophage was not significantly correlated with any of the pathogens examined.

 Fish and Game New Zealand
Eastern Region – Hunting Regulations
Fish and Game New Zealand, 2011
Abstract: This is a web page from the Fish & Game New Zealand displaying (map) the Eastern Fish & Game bird hunting areas (A1, A2, B1, B2). It also gives a written description of these areas, along with species that may be hunted or killed for the duration of the season in a particular area and allowable shooting hours.

 Fisher, A.; Piahana, T.; Black, T. A.; Ohia, R.
The issues concerning the use, control and management of Tauranga Harbour and its estuaries: a combined report (Wai 215)
Waitangi Tribunal, 1997
Abstract: The Tauranga Harbour is an extensive estuarine and deep water harbour in the Western Bay of Plenty which is bounded on its landwards side by approximately 280 kilometres of shoreline extending from Mauao at the eastern end, around to Bowentown at the western end. With the exception of a narrow entrance at each end, the Harbour is fully enclosed and is protected from the open coast by Matakana Island which runs parallel to the shoreline from Mauao to Bowentown. Although Ngai Te Rangi, Ngati Ranginui and Ngati Punkenga exist as separate economic, political and social entities, they are bound together through whakapapa, proximity to and intermarriage with each other, a common relationship with the Harbour and the effects of the alienation of their resources by the Crown and its agents.

 Fitzgibbon, J.
Grey-Faced Petrel Project 2001Marine Studies report no. 116
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic, 2001
Abstract: As a requirement of the Diploma in Marine Studies course 2001, the following students, with the help of Hugh Clifford of the Ornithological Society of New Zealand (OSNZ), studied and banded a species of bird, the Grey-faced Petrel, at Mauao (Mount Maunganui) and Motuotau Island: Joshua Fitzgibbon, Henry Vaughton, Charl Naude, Wayne Goodchild and Meghann Dara-Dee. This report is only a section of the overall report, with the focus on the Motuotau (Rabbit) Island colony site, with references to the Mauao colony site. The aim of this report is to provide a detailed background on the Grey-faced petrel’s biology and history of conservation. The focus is on the factors that affect the population of breeding colonies and the methods used to band and process petrels. This report describes the Motuotau Island colony site and draws comparisons with the Mauao colony site. The results show a larger population density at Motuotau Island than at Mauao, although actual figures on this were not obtained. Site comparisons show a similarity in vegetation species that occupy Motuotau Island and Mauao. Differences in the growth of this vegetation relate to the burrow descriptions and population numbers of the respective sites.

 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Fisheries and Aquaculture Department)
The state of world fisheries and aquaculture
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2000
Abstract: This is the third issue of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. It follows the pattern set by the previous issues, published in 1996 and 1998. The purpose continues to be to provide policy-makers, civil society and those who derive their livelihood from the sector a comprehensive, objective and global view of capture fisheries and aquaculture, including associated policy issues.

 Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
The World's Mangroves 1980-2005: A Thematic Study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 2007
Abstract: High population pressure in coastal areas has led to the conversion of many mangrove areas to other uses and numerous case studies describe these mangrove losses over time. Nevertheless, information on the current status and trends in the extent of mangroves at the global level is scarce. With the preparation of the present report, FAO aims to facilitate access to comprehensive information on the current and past extent of mangroves in all countries and areas in which they exist. The information provided in this report, as well as the gaps in information that it highlights, will serve as tools for mangrove managers and for policy- and decision-makers worldwide.

 Foster, D.M.
Environmental impacts of recent dredging and inner shelf spoil disposal at Tauranga
University of Waikato, 1992
Abstract: This study looks at the area where dumping of dredge material occurs off Mount Maunganui. The study includes a survey of the extent to which biological recolonisation of the dump ground occurred. Some species including pipi that survived the dredge were found to be living on the inner shelf. The study also looked at the effect of the dredge dumping on the rocky reef surrounding islands such as Motuotau and Moturiki. The thesis includes information about the ecology and biology of the inner shelf area off Mount Maunganui as well as the rocky reef environments of Moturiki and Motuotau.

 Foster, D.M.;Healy, T.R.;Warren, S.K.
Environmental impacts of a recent dredge spoil dumping operation off Tauranga, New Zealand
Coastal Engineering: Climate for Change; Proceedings of the 10th Australasian conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 1991
Abstract: The environmental impacts of a recent dredge spoil dumping episode are discussed. Techniques used to determine firstly the extent of spoil dispersal, and secondly the environmental impacts of spoil dispersal are outlined. The results are then presented. It is concluded that in the six months since dumping finished, spoil dispersal from the dump ground has been minimal, and that the greatest environmental impact resulted from burial of benthic organisms where most of the spoil dumping was concentrated.

 Foster, D.M.;Healy, T.R.;Warren, S.K.
Environmental impacts of a recent dredge spoil dumping operation off Tauranga, New Zealand
University of Waikato, n.d.
Abstract: Benthic organisms and dredge spoil dumping Foster, Healy and Warren (n.d.) reported on the environmental impact of the dredge spoil dumping off the coast from Mt. Maunganui. The benthic organisms were sampled 3 months after the dumping was completed. The study concluded that the diversity of the organisms in the site had reduced by around 60% in and around the dumping zone. The most common organisms in the dump ground were worms such as Epigonichthys hectori and also hermit crabs. The major differences between the spoil and unspoiled sites were in the number of species of molluscs. The unspoiled sites had greater diversity of molluscs. The accumulation of sediment in the dump ground included a single species of pipi Paphies australe which was present in large numbers. This pipi is not normally found in this environment and is thought to have survived the dredging operation and colonised from the dredge spoil removed from inside the harbour. The main conclusion of the report was that organisms can cope with small increases in sediment levels.

 Foster, G.A.
Beach nourishment from a near-shore dredge spoil dump at Mount Maunganui beach
University of Waikato, 1991
Abstract: This study looks at the sediments of the near shore zone off Mount Maunganui Beach prior to dumping of dredged materials. Investigations were also made into the benthic community prior to, during and after the dumping of dredge spoil. It was found that the zone was repopulated quickly after dumping. The study includes information about near shore sediment patterns, sea floor characteristics and a benthic survey.

 Foster, G.A., Healy, T.R., & de Lange, W.P.
Sediment budget equilibrium beach profiles applied to re-nourishment of an ebb tidal delta adjacent beach, Mt. Maunganui, New Zealand
Journal of Coastal Research, 1994
Abstract: An ebb tidal delta adjacent beach was nourished by placement of dredged material in water depths of 4-7 m below Chart Datum. The beach and nearshore were subsequently monitored with accurate integrated beach-nearshore surveys along 7 transects. All the nourishment material could be accounted for by onshore movement resulting in 89 m3 $m^1$ of accretion within 15 months of placement. Application of the Dean's Equilibrium Beach Profile model, before, during and after disposal, indicated that before nourishment the beach-nearshore profiles exhibited a deficit of sediment throughout their length. After nourishment, the profiles adjusted towards the equilibrium profile predicted by the model.

 Francis, M.P., Morrison, M.A.,Leathwick, J., Walsh,C. and Middleton, C.
Predictive models of small fish presence and abundance in northern New Zealand harbours
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2005
Abstract: A broad-scale, small-fish survey was carried out in northern New Zealand inshore waters using beach seines. The survey covered 30 estuaries spanning ca 1000 km of coastline and three degrees of latitude. Correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were used to identify assemblages, and Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used to model the abundance and occurrence of individual species. We aimed to assess the utility of these models for making predictions. The results were mixed. Descriptive models of fish abundance performed well for four out of 12 species; for most other species, and species richness, the models described the data well but performed poorly to moderately under cross validation. Predictive models of fish abundance usually performed worse than descriptive models, but appeared reasonable for four species. Presence-absence models performed better overall than abundance models: descriptive models showed good performance for all 12 species, and predictive models performed well for eight species. For an independent data set, the models successfully predicted occurrence for five species. Water clarity, salinity and the amount of freshwater inflow were important predictor variables. Despite the limitations of our GAMs, they should be useful for planning intensive process-based research, and for guiding the management of human activities that impinge on coastal marine environments.

 Francis, M.P.; Walsh, C.; Morrison, M.A.; Middleton, C.
Invasion of the Asian goby, Acentrogobius pflaumii, into New Zealand, with new locality records of the introduced bridled goby, Arenigobius bifrenatus
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2003
Abstract: The Asian goby, Acentrogobius pflaumii (Bleeker, 1853), is reported from New Zealand waters for the first time. It was collected by beach seine in 2001-02 from muddy substrata in the upper reaches of the Waitemata and Whangapoua Harbours. We suggest that A. pflaumii has been introduced to New Zealand, probably in ship ballast water. It may have arrived directly from its native range in the north-west Pacific Ocean, or indirectly via Australia, which it invaded before 1996. The Australian bridled goby, Arenigobius bifrenatus (Kner, 1865), which is also thought to have invaded New Zealand via ballast water, is here recorded from three new locations, extending its known New Zealand range to five different harbours spanning c. 150 km of coastline. This species is more widespread than previously thought and appears well established. Both gobies have been found only on the east coast of the North Island.

 Frankenstein, Gretchen.
Blooms of ulvoids in Puget Sound
Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team, 2000
Abstract: This report assesses the sea lettuce distribution and associated environmental conditions at a range of sites within the Puget Sounds. This is an attempt to identify the next step in investigating macroalgal blooms in Puget Sound. Also gives a model on sea lettuce blooms and explores causal factors.

 Fredette, T.J.;Fonseca, M. S.;Kenworthy, W.J.;Wyllie-Echeverria, S.
An investigation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) transplanting in San Francisco Bay, CA
U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, 1985
Abstract: Survival, metabolism and growth of Zostera marina L. transplants were examined along depth gradients in Keil Cove and Paradise Cove in the extremely turbid San Francisco Bay estuary. Water transparency was unusually high throughout 1989–1990 for San Francisco Bay. Transplant survival was strongly depth-dependent at Paradise Cove but not at Keil Cove. All transplants were lost below − 1.0 m depth within 1 year at Paradise Cove, but survived to depths of − 1.5 m at Keil Cove. Half the transplants growing in shallow water survived the first year at both sites. Shoot photosynthesis, respiration, growth, and sugar content did not differ between sites. Daily periods of irradiance-saturated photosynthesis (Hsat) were over 6 h all year. Seasonal photosynthetic acclimation to light availability maintained long Hsat periods and high ratios of daily whole-plant production to respiration through the winter, indicating a potential for net carbon gain throughout the year. Winter growth was 50% of the summer rate. Despite high initial losses, surviving transplants have persisted at both sites through 1994. Although eelgrass transplants can succeed in San Francisco Bay given sufficient light availability, the role of carbon reserves and transplant timing may influence transplant survival.

 Freund,J.A.;Mieruch,S.;Scholze,B.;Wiltshire,K.; Feudel,U.
Bloom dynamics in a seasonally forced phytoplankton-zooplankton model: Trigger mechanisms and timing effects
Ecological Complexity, 2006
Abstract: The study developed an extension of the phytoplankton-zooplankton model used by Truscott and Brindley 1994 to describe the annually recurring phytoplankton blooms. The extension is a seasonal forcing of the phytoplankton growth rate driven by an oscillating temperature via a Q10 law. The authors observe bi-stable long-term behaviour of the ecological system, i.e. a bloom and non-bloom mode, the importance of timing, and noise-induced switchings between the bloom and non-bloom mode. We link the model results to existing Helgoland Roads long-term data series by analysing the latter using the novel method of bloom-triggered averaging, a tool borrowed from signal analysis of neurophysiological recordings. They find that on an average blooms are correlated with rapid upward temperature fluctuations and speculate on their possible role as trigger mechanisms.

 Froude, V.
Aquaculture - Join the Discussion: Summary of Submissions Received
Ministry of Fisheries and Ministry for the Environment, 2001
Abstract: This report summarises submissions made on the public discussion document entitled "Aquaculture-Join the Discussion” released by the Minister of Fisheries, Hon. Pete Hodgson, in August 2000. The purpose of the discussion paper was to provide people with an opportunity to comment on proposals for the future management of aquaculture. At the end of June 2001 Pacific Eco-Logic Ltd. was asked to complete previous submissions analysis work and prepare a report for public distribution. A total of 242 submissions were received on the discussion paper.

Futter, Paul
Impact of Septic Tank Contamination at Te Puna
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2003
Abstract: The On-Site Effluent Treatment Regional Plan became Operative in December 1996. Within the Plan, policies were developed to give guidance for the use of on-site effluent treatment systems. The policies addressed:
  1. The issue of contamination through poor maintenance and servicing of systems;
  2. The lack of knowledge of what lay below the ground at each household;
  3. The need for a maintenance programme to be developed; and
  4. The need for continued environmental monitoring.
In December 2002 the Te Puna community agreed to join the maintenance programme of regular cleaning and inspection of their systems. The area covered by the programme covers 136 properties, including seven empty sections. Some sections may have more than one dwelling on them. This report discusses the results of the monitoring programme at Te Puna between 8 May 2002 and 26 May 2003, and the results of monitoring of septic tank systems up to June 2003. About 55% of systems reported so far have failed. As expected there is a predominance of failures around the Waitui Reserve but not an absence of failures elsewhere.

 Gesing, F
Beyond hard protection? An anthropological perspective on emerging coastal flood risk management practices in New Zealand
International Research Training Group Intercoast: University of Bremen (Germany) and University of Waikato (New Zealand), 2010
Abstract: Currently, there are several processes of change that interact and impact upon coastal protection strategies in New Zealand: so-called coastal change (changes in settlement patterns, gentrification, increased development and subdivision of coastal areas), climate change (sea-level rise and increased coastal hazard) as well as changing paradigms in coastal protection practices and policies. Like in some other industrialized countries as well, policy makers and planners in New Zealand increasingly accept the idea that it is technically not feasible to protect the shore through coastal armouring alone in the long run. Hard protection structures cause very high investment and follow up costs and have negative environmental and social impacts. Ongoing erosive processes in front of seawalls induce coastal squeeze and preclude public use of the beach (Jacobson, 2005). The preservation of the natural coastline in the interest of the wider public is now measured against the demand for protective structures by beachfront property owners. This renunciation of so-called hard protection measures will be starting point for a multi-local and multi-method ethnography of emerging coastal flood risk management practices in New Zealand. The anthropological research project concentrates on how coastal protection is negotiated by different actors in the field. The main focus will be on discursive understandings and practices about nature as they are important for understanding different coastal protection strategies and technologies. The study will combine the main body of data gathered from extensive participant observation and semi-structured interviews with additional material like newspaper articles, grey literature/brochures and policy documents, including submissions and protocols from the ongoing review process of the main regulative framework in the area, the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement (NZCPS). Main objective is to figure out how coastal protection is negotiated, decided upon and carried out on a concrete, practical level. The focus of this study does not lie on an abstract, institutional level, but on every-day practices, informal processes of communication, networking and decision-making. Why are certain practices successful in claiming to be “state of the art” in coastal protection? What kind of discourses – especially those relying on certain understandings of nature, natural features and the natural character of the coast – back up certain techniques and policies to protect the coast? What role does “nature” as a concept play in defining the need for coastal protection measures in the first place? What role does the idea of managed retreat play as the ultimate opposite of altering the coast for the benefit of human use? How do coastal engineers, dune planting volunteers, scientists and other actors negotiate their perceptions of nature, coast, and protection.

 Gibberd, B.; Carter, N.
Regional estuary monitoring programme: sediment monitoring
Environment Waikato Technical Report, 2003
Abstract: In April 2001 Environment Waikato initiated the Regional Estuary Monitoring Programme (REMP) at permanent monitoring sites in the southern Firth of Thames and Whaingaroa (Raglan) Harbour. The programme focuses on intertidal sediments and their benthic macro-fauna communities as "indicators" of the health of the Region's estuaries. The objective is to determine the current status of, monitor the temporal changes in benthic macro-fauna communities that may occur as a direct or indirect consequence of catchment activity and/or estuary development. Details of the rationale and design of the programme are provided full in Turner (2000 and 2001).

 Gibbs, M.; Funnell, G.;Pickmere, S.;Norkko, A.;Hewitt, J.
Benthic nutrient fluxes along an estuarine gradient: influence of the pinnid bivalve Atrina zelandica in summer
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2005
Abstract: Benthic nutrient fluxes (BNF) can supply 30 to 100% of the nutrient requirements of benthic and pelagic algae in an estuary, and can, thus, potentially sustain benthic and pelagic primary production within the estuarine food web. While BNF can be influenced by microbial processes, epibenthic suspension-feeding bivalves have the potential to alter fluxes by their influence on the community composition of surrounding macrofauna and benthic boundary conditions, and their feeding activities. In Mahurangi Harbour, New Zealand, the large suspension feeding pinnid Atrina zelandica (hereafter referred to as Atrina) occupies large areas of the harbour floor. Consequently, Atrina have the potential to substantially influence the BNF and, thus, primary production, and the food supply to the filter feeding community within the harbour, including the rack-farmed Pacific oyster aquaculture industry. Mahurangi Harbour is almost always isohaline, but exhibits a strong gradient in suspended sediment concentration, which declines from head to mouth. As Atrina increase their rate of pseudofaeces production with increases in suspended sediment concentration, we conducted in situ light and dark paired benthic chamber experiments with and without Atrina at 4 stations along this turbidity gradient, to determine their effect on BNF. Our results showed substantially greater BNF from Atrina beds than bare sediments. We also found greater net BNF (difference between Atrina beds and bare sediment) in the less turbid water under dark conditions, but enhanced water column nutrient supply in the more turbid water in light, due to Atrina excretion of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N). On an a real basis, we estimate that BNF from Atrina beds may account for up to 80% of the nutrient supply for pelagic primary production and, thus, they are of major importance to the sustainability of aquaculture in this harbour.

 Gibbs, M.M
Identifying Source Soils in Contemporary Estuarine Sediments: A New Compound-Specific Isotope Method
Estuaries and Coasts Journal, 2008
Abstract: A new method is proposed for the identification and apportionment of contemporary source soils contributing to estuarine sediments. The method uses compound-specific isotopic analysis of naturally occurring biomarkers (fatty acids) derived from plants to link source soils to land use within a single catchment. For identification and apportionment of source soils in the estuarine samples, the method uses the isotopic mixing model, IsoSource. The feasible proportions obtained from IsoSource are then scaled to allow for the percent organic carbon in the source soils. With this approach, the estimation of each source soil contribution to a location in the estuary is independent of any degradation of the biomarkers through microbial or biogeochemical processes. Identification relies on the evaluation of the sediment sample relative to a “library” of reference source soils from different land use within the catchment. Selection of potential sources is geographically constrained by the requirement for a natural linkage between each source soil and the sediment site sampled. A case study, using this method, mapped the distribution of three main land use source soils (pasture, native forest, and pine forest) across the river delta in a small estuary fringed with mangroves. Rather than being uniformly distributed, the results indicated that the source soil contributions varied markedly across the delta, raising concerns about the validity of taking single cores to characterize the sediments of an estuary. Coupling the source apportionment results with land use data indicated that the mean percent contribution of pine forest soil in the river delta sediments was almost three times greater than the percent land use area of pine forest in the catchment. Furthermore, isotopic signatures indicated that most of the pine forest soil came from the much smaller areas exposed to erosion by clear cut harvesting and that the soil contribution from recently harvested areas of pine forest could be as much as 20 times greater than that land use area in this catchment. This is the first method that can identify and apportion, by land use on a catchment scale, the sources of soil contributing to the sediment at a location of an estuary. The results are given as a “best estimate”, within definable limits, of the proportional contribution of each potential source soil. Information obtained using this method will allow development of management strategies to alter land use practices to reduce the sediment load to rivers, and thus, the impact on the aquatic ecosystem downstream in estuaries.

 Gibbs, Mark T.
Application of a Bayesian network model and a complex systems model to investigate risks of a proposed aquaculture development on the carrying capacity of shorebirds at the Miranda Ramsar wetland
Environment Waikato Regional Council, Auckland Regional Council and Ministry for the Environment, 2006
Abstract: This study was commissioned as a result of stakeholder’s concerns over possible effects of the proposed Western Firth aquaculture developments on the Ramsar wetland at the southern Firth of Thames. The study involved the development of a hazard assessment, and then investigating risk pathways through the use of a Bayesian network model, and a complex systems model. The results of the study may be summarised as follows: The hazard assessment identified multiple pathways through which the proposed farms may interact with the wetland habitat; including through changes to primary productivity, detrital pathways and sediment dynamics. Both the Bayesian network model and complex systems model suggest that the ability of the habitat to support shorebirds is non-linearly dependent upon both the habitat size, and quality. Cultured mussels feed on seston (suspended particulate matter), therefore there is the potential for the proposed farms to influence the standing stock/production rates of plankton at the shorebird habitat. However, the network model suggests that the habitat quality is not strongly dependent on primary production rates in the water-column. Therefore, this result, along with the low predicted phytoplankton depletion resulting from the farms, suggests that phytoplankton drawdown will not have more than a minor influence over the ability of the habitat to support shorebirds. Mussel farms can become reservoirs for numerous species of fouling organism including non-indigenous invasive species although a major vector (vessel traffic) is low in the region at present. If new mussel farm service vessels were to dock in the region of the Ramsar habitat, then biosecurity management codes of practice will be required in order to minimise risks of invasive species colonising the habitat as the introduction of pests may present risks. There is a risk that in the future some pest species may colonise the farms, then jump through natural dispersion onto hard structures in the Ramsar habitat, or increased recreational traffic may become a new vector. Once again it will be the responsibility of farmers and regulators to develop management plans to ensure that any unwanted pest species that establish on the farms are managed effectively. Considerable volumes of sediment entering the southern Firth of Thames ends up on the mudflat habitats where the shorebirds forage. Hence changes to the sediment dynamics resulting from the establishment of the farms could play a role in changing both the shorebird habitat quantity, and quality. However, present best estimates of the influence of the proposed farms on sediment transport processes also suggest that this interaction will be minor. By far the greatest influence on the shorebird habitat appears to be from terrestrial drivers, including the generation and delivery of sediments, organic material and nutrients. The recent dramatic expansion of the mangrove forests demonstrates the dynamic nature of this habitat, and despite the observed increase in utilisation of the habitat by Oystercatchers, these changes to a Ramsar-designated wetland are cause for concern. The complex systems model also alluded to a possible other cause for concern that, although is beyond the scope of this study, should be highlighted. As noted above, there has been a substantial increase in the number of New Zealand migratory Pied Oystercatchers using the site. It remains to be seen whether this increase in utilisation has been at a cost to other birds, particularly the more celebrated Arctic migratory waders. The model, hints at the possibility that this may be occurring as a small change in the foraging behaviour of the Oystercatchers lead to an out-competing of the smaller bird species considered.

 Gibbs,N.;Childerhouse, S.
Humpback whales around New Zealand
Department of Conservation, 2000
Abstract: Through detailed literature searches of published and unpublished work and contacting people, sighting information on humpback whales were collated and analysed to determine location, date and seasonality, composition of sightings, and common behaviour states. The analysis found that the number of humpback sightings and abundance had a slow increase during 1990s, particularly in the late 1990s. The study confirmed that the northern migration occurs between May and August whilst the southern occurs between September and December. No evidence of change was found in the migration patterns past New Zealand coast.

 Gibson, P
Māori methods and indicators for marine protection: A process to identify tohu (marine indicators) to measure the health of the rohe moana of Ngāti Konohi
Ngāti Konohi, Department of Conservation and Ministry for the Environment, 2005
Abstract: This report focuses on the environmental tohu identified by Ngāti Konohi as indicators of the health of the marine environment in the rohe moana of Ngāti Konohi (Waihau Bay in the north, to Tatapouri heads in the south). It has been developed with several purposes in mind:
  • To provide a more complete total picture of the elements that have a bearing on the health of the marine environment, when used in conjunction with western scientific method. That is, environmental tohu, while important in their own right, should also be seen as complementing western scientific methods, for a fuller, more holistic view of the environment.
  • To provide a specific c focus and to outline possible directions for future marine management for Ngati Konohi.
  • To be of use to other hapu/iwi nationwide: its findings can be adapted, adjusted and modified to suit other marine environments in different locations throughout the motu.

 Gillespie, P.A.;MacKenzie, A.L.
Microbial Activity in Natural and Organically Enriched Intertidal Sediments near Nelson, NZ
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1990
Abstract: Two measures of microbial activity were used to characterise a variety of sediment habitats in three intertidal inlets in the Nelson region, South Island, New Zealand. Rates of microbial mineralisation potential and epibenthic microalgal production were compared with sediment textures, concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, ATP concentrations, and organic and inorganic nutrients. Baseline ranges for these parameters were established for relatively undisturbed estuarine sites for assessing future environmental deterioration and for comparison with sites affected by organic enrichment. Sediment mineralisation rates were increased more than 1000-fold by enrichment from a fruit processing plant and microalgal production was enhanced by more than 50-fold at a site exposed to slaughterhouse wastes. The remaining variables, although often strongly correlated with activity measurements, were not as sensitive as measures of enrichment. Sediment microbial activity measurements are proposed as a means of detecting changes in nutrient status of estuarine environments.

 Global Ballast Water Management Programme
Ballast Water News, issue 2 July-September
GloBallast, 2000
Abstract: This newsletter is an overview of the ballast water issue and the GloBallast programme. This issue focuses on ballast water treatment technology with updates on a few of the many R&D projects being conducted around the world.

 Godwin, L.S.
The proceedings of a workshop on current issues and potential management strategies conducted Feb 13-14 2004
Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative - Research program, 2005
Abstract: Mechanisms for introducing alien marine species. Ships and sea going vessels can be thought of as biological islands. These vessels provide a mechanism for alien species to be transported to new localities around the globe. Species can be transported in ballast water, hull fouling, and in the recesses and enclosed spaces of ships. As ships take in and exchange ballast water, they also take in the substances that are in the water. The organisms are generally those found in intertidal and subtidal areas in ports. They can be small crustaceans, unicellular algae and bacteria, zooplankton, and also adult species of fish and crabs. Typical houling species include arthropods (barnacles, amphipods, and crabs), molluscs (mussels, clams, and sea slugs), sponges, bryozoans (moss animals), cnidarians (hydroids and anemones), protozoans, annelids (marine worms) and chordates (sea squirts and fish) as well as seaweeds. Godwin (2004) notes that bacteria transported in ballast water were thought to be responsible for a major outbreak of cholera bacteria in shellfish in the early 1990’s in the U.S.A. The bacteria was traced back to South America were the strain caused 10,000 deaths. Particulate matter such as organic and inorganic detritus can also be suspended in the water column and accumulate in ballast tanks, these can provide a temporary habitat for organisms.

 Goff, J., & Walters, R.
Revealing the unseen threat tsunami sources in the Bay of Plenty
Water & Atmosphere Journal, 2007
Abstract: Tsunami sources in the Bay of Plenty. The region is exposed to tsunami risks. A tsunami is a ‘wall’ of water which travels through the ocean after it is displaced suddenly, usually triggered by an earthquake or an underwater landslide. When this water hits the offshore shelves and coastal areas, it is pushed up and can cause destruction to coastal areas. Scientists can locate evidence of tsunamis in the sediment layers in some coastal sites. Goff and Walters (2007) undertook a study that investigated the sources of tsunamis in the Bay of Plenty. They found that ‘local faults’ where one side of the seabed slips downward would produce small tsunamis of around 2m. The collapse of seamounts or submarine volcanoes offshore would produce small tsunamis of 1.5m. Earthquakes in the offshore subduction zone in the Tonga-Kermadec Trench, which is just north of East Cape, would produce tsunamis of more catastrophic height. Two waves are produced, one moves onshore and the other moves offshore away from the coast. The tsunami crests at 2-3m in the southeast and increased towards 5-7m in the northwest Bay of Plenty. Goff and Walters (2007) tested this with a model and matched it with evidence in the coastal sediment record. They concluded that the Tonga-Kermadec Trench is the most likely source of historical catastrophic tsunamis in the Bay of Plenty.

 Goldstien, S. J.;Schiel, D. R.;Gemmell, N. J.
Regional connectivity and coastal expansion: differentiating pre-border and post-border vectors for the invasive tunicate Styela clava
Molecular Ecology, 2010
Abstract: The dramatic increase in marine bio-invasions, particularly of non-indigenous ascidians, has highlighted the vulnerability of marine ecosystems and the productive sectors that rely on them. A critical issue in managing invasive species is determining the relative roles of ongoing introductions, versus the local movement of propagules from established source populations. Styela clava (Herdman, 1882), the Asian clubbed tunicate, once restricted to the Pacific shores of Asia and Russia, is now abundant throughout the northern and southern hemispheres and has had significant economic impact in at least one site of incursion. In 2005 S. clava was identified in New Zealand. The recent introduction of this species, coupled with its restricted distribution, provided an ideal model to compare and contrast the introduction and expansion process. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) gene and 11 microsatellite markers were used to test the regional genetic structure and diversity of 318 S. clava individuals from 10 populations within New Zealand. Both markers showed significant differentiation between the northern and southern populations, indicative of minimal pre- or post-border connectivity. Additional statistics further support pre- and post-border differentiation among Port and Harbour populations (i.e. marinas and aquaculture farms). We conclude that New Zealand receives multiple introductions, and that the primary vector for pre-border incursions and post-border spread is most likely the extensive influx of recreational vessels that enter northern marinas independent of the Port. This is a timely reminder of the potential for hull-fouling organisms to expand their range as climates change and open new pathways.

 Goodchild, W.
Statistical analysis of the grey-faced petrel colony on Mount Maunganui 1999-2001
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic, 2001
Abstract: The aim of this report was to continue research on the grey-faced petrel breeding colony on Mount Maunganui. The research began in 1991 and has been carried out by the Ornithological Society of New Zealand (OSNZ) Waikato Branch, up until this year. It was also done as part of the Diploma in Marine Studies programme at the Bay of Plenty Polytechnic. Five students, who each wrote a report focusing on a different aspect of the colony, carried out the research. This report shows the data collected during night time excursions around the Mount, where birds were caught, banded and recorded, weighed, wing measurements taken, marked and then released. The results compared to previous years showed that not many birds were caught this year, which may have been related to the number of trips made. They also showed that the birds weight did not fluctuate enormously over the years, and more specifically in a selected month each year. It was found that there may be a linear relationship between the birds weight and wing length, but it is not yet certain. The number of recaptured birds versus new bandings shows that the number of new bandings has been dropping consistently for the last few years, but the number of recaptures, although fluctuating, seems to be remaining relatively stable over the same time period. The main conclusion gathered from this report is that there has not been a great deal of change to the petrel colony over the last ten years. There is however plenty of work that can still be done to allow a more precise analysis of the current situation, any changes that occurred in the past, and any changes that may occur in the future.

 Goodwin, L.S (Ed.)
Hull fouling as a mechanism for marine invasive species introductions
Proceedings of a 2003 workshop on current issues and potential management strategies, 2005
Abstract: A workshop was conducted Febuary 12 and 13, 2003 focusing on hull fouling as a mechanism for alien species transport and potential management strategies. This was accomplished with too invited speakers from New Zealand: Dr. Oliver Floerl, Marine Biosecurity Researcher, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), and Ashley Coutts, Marine Biosecurity Division, Cawthron Institute. This workshop presented current research and knowledge concerning hull fouling introductions and began a process of developing of information that can be integrated into the overall alien aquatic species management plan through specific efforts concentrationg on mechanisms associated with maritime vessel activity. The papers in this volume are a product of this workshop. The first paper by Godwin is an introduction to the issue of aquatic invasive species transport by marine vessel activity. A final papaer by Godwin summarizes the efforts to develop an information framework for management strategies for minimizing aquatic alien species introductions through hull fouling. A comprehensive paper on the factors influencing the development of hull foulding on maritime vessels is presented by Floerl. The Floerl an Inglis paper specifically focusus on the hull fouling of private yachts as an aquatic invasive species transport mechanism. Floerl et al. Provide an overview of current research activites undertake by NIWA in New Zealand, which deal with aquatic invasive species. Coutts and Tylor provide a paper that covers the issue of hull fouling transport of aquatic invasive species by merchant vessels in New Zealand. Coutts is the sole author on a paper that documents the introduction and spread of a tunicate species in New Zealand that is associated with hull fouling community. Another paper by Coutts presents a research perspective on efforts to minimize aquatic invasive species by resource management agencies.

 Gorman, D.;Connell, S. D.
Recovering sub-tidal forests in human-dominated landscapes
Journal of Applied Ecology, 2009
Abstract: Policy initiatives that seek to recover lost habitats require the capacity to anticipate and suppress the mechanisms that drive loss. The replacement of forested landscapes by simple landscapes comprising of opportunistic or 'weedy' species represents an increasingly common phenomenon across human-dominated systems. The failure of subtidal forests to recover from natural and human disturbance and their ultimate replacement by degraded habitats is recognized globally. The current lack of knowledge on whether such shifts can be reversed jeopardizes considerations of restoration policy within increasingly human-dominated landscapes. We critically assessed the model that recovery of canopies within remnant kelp forests in degraded landscapes (i.e. turf-forming algae that carpet space) is slower than in adjacent forested landscapes, but may be increased by removing turfs. After generating experimental disturbance, canopies recovered to their former state within forested landscapes, but not in remnant forests in degraded landscapes. Removal of turfs from spaces between remnant forests, however, enabled canopies to recruit and subsequently develop covers that matched those in remnant forests. Whilst the supply of canopy-forming propagules to degraded landscapes is likely to decline with gap expansion, we show that improvements to forest resilience and restoration are possible via policies that result in a reduction of turf covers. These results also support the model that regime-shifts need not be a product of synchronized loss, but can occur as a result of reduced rates of canopy-recruitment over broad areas and many years. Indeed, patterns of canopy-loss over several decades redouble attention to the human-mediated conditions that enable turfs to retain space (i.e. elevated nutrient and sediment loads via coastal runoff). Synthesis and applications. We demonstrate that future restoration is a possible outcome of polices that promote ecosystem recovery. In doing so, we reduce uncertainty about policy initiatives that aim to upgrade the recycling potential of wastewater treatment plants (e.g. nearly 45% of South Australia's metropolitan wastewater) to improve the quality of water needed to restore subtidal forests. Uncertainty about resilience-building and restoration management are redressed by demonstrating that the feedbacks maintaining regime-shifted landscapes are not necessarily permanent.

Gouk, S. G.
The population dynamics and production of Paphies australis (pipi) in the southern basin, Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
University of Waikato, 2001
Abstract: This thesis looks at pipi (Paphies australis) population dynamics and production at three sub tidal sites in the Southern Basin of Tauranga Harbour. The study looks at seasonal and tidal variations at the sites as well as population dynamics and production of pipi at these locations. The ecology of the area and pipi are also described.

 Grace, R.V.
Statement of evidence of Roger Vernon Grace for resource consent applications by Port of Tauranga
Port of Tauranga, n.d.
Abstract: Dr Grace is a specialist in intertidal and sub tidal ecology, long-tem monitoring of marine life in coastal and shallow benthic areas, and effects of dredging and dredge spoil and off-shore sand extraction. He has carried out biological investigations into the ecological effects of dredging in Harbour channels within the Tauranga Harbour, as well as the impacts of dredge spoil disposal offshore for over 20 years. Dr Grace, like Professor Healy, produced comprehensive and detailed evidence relating to the matters set out above. The submitters did not contest this evidence, and this combined with Dr Grace’s long professional association with and experience in the Tauranga Harbour, gave the Panel considerable confidence that his evidence was thorough, robust and could be relied upon in respect of physical effects on ecological resources. Dr Grace discussed the impacts of the proposed dredging and disposal on the biological ecology of the area. This was particularly significant to Hapu and Iwi with respect to the effects on the natural environment, but also as the Harbour is a significant source of kaimoana. In this respect, one of the more significant issues was the impact of the dredging proposal on the pipi beds at Te Paritaha – part of which would be destroyed by the dredging operation.

 Grace, R.V.
Water right investigations. Effects on benthic biota of pine bark waste in stormwater
Port of Tauranga Ltd, 1993

 Grace, R.V.
Monitoring of submerged reef biota off Motuotau Island in relation to dredge spoil dumping by Port of Tauranga Ltd
Port of Tauranga Ltd, 1997
Abstract: Dredge spoil resulting from the development and maintenance of the Port of Tauranga has for over a quarter of a century been dumped in a series of zones on the inner shelf off Mount Maunganui. A major channel deepening and widening programme was undertaken in 1992, resulting in the dumping of 4.5 million cubic metres of spoil on a new dump ground in 25 to 30 metres of water. A monitoring programme was designed to determine if the dumped sediment was impacting on the reef biological communities around Motuatau Island inshore from the dump ground. A control site and two test sites were established in May 1990 on submerged reefs near the island. Photographic monitoring of approximately 3 metres long permanent transects close to the rock/sand boundary followed changes in rocky bottom biota and in sediment loading on the biota, as well as movement of sediment at the rock/sand interface. Metal stakes driven into the sandy seabed near the rocks enabled measurement of changes in the level of sediments. Maximum measured fluctuation in sediment level at the control was 16 cm, most occurring before major dumping. Sites 1 and 2 showed only 5 cm level rise. The level changes were probably within the range of natural change. No major changes in biota occurred at any site. Small changes appeared to be well within the normal range of variability expected in this shallow rocky habitat close to sand. Small quantities of fine sediment dusting the rocky bottom biota appeared to be derived from localised turbidity during rough weather. Some marine organisms can temporarily stabilise this material during periods of calm. It is concluded that minor sediment level changes, occasional dustings of fine sediment, and minor changes on rocky bottom biota were not related to dumping or dredge spoil.There was no evidence found of any harmful effects on rocky reef ecology attributable to the major dredge spoil dumping event og January to July 1992.

 Grace, R.V.
Intertidal benthos near the airport drain outlet carrying storm-water from Port of Tauranga's Hewletts Road log storage area
Port of Tauranga Ltd, 1998
Abstract: During 1994 Port of Tauranga Ltd established a log handling facility on about 11 hectares of flat land at Hewletts Road. Stormwater from the area is treated with alum and settled in a pond before intermitten discharge into a public stormwater drain which in turn discharges on the foreshore, where there are beds of seagrass and shellfish.

 Grace, R.V.;Blom, W.
Preliminary results of the baseline and first post-dredging surveys of biological monitoring programme
Port of Tauranga Ltd, 1992
Abstract: Early in 1992 the Port of Tauranga Ltd commenced a capital dredging programme in order to deepen and widen the shipping channels in Tauranga Harbour. Since then up to 6 million cubic metres of dredge spoil have been removed from the Harbour shipping lanes and dumped on a specified dump ground 2km offshore from Mount Maunganui.

 Grace, R.V.
White Island Notes
Unpublished report, 1975
Abstract: Observations of various marine aspects of White Island were made during a week-long visit in May 1974. Sea water temperatures between White Island and Tauranga show an abrupt discontinuity, probably associated with a change from coastal to oceanic water. Volcanic activity at White Island includes subtidal hot springs and gas vents. Marine life is reduced close to the outfall of an acid stream, and high tidal limpets are severely eroded by acid from the volcano. Zonation of marine organisms on the Volkner Rocks has some features apparently peculiar to the White Island region. 55 species of marine fishes were observed, several species with strong subtropical affinities. A number of species of marine organisms that could be expected at White Island were apparently absent.

 Graeme, B.;Graeme, A
Tanea reef investigation
Port of Tauranga Ltd, 1991
Abstract: The report details the biological community at the Tanea reef, significance of the Tanea reef within the Tauranga ecological district, and options for relocation of Tanea boulders and their recolonisation. To assist larger ships entering the Harbour the Port of Tauranga have proposed a channel widening programme that will cut into the channel edge close to the foot of Mount Maunganui. The conclusion of the Tanea Reef Investigation is that the reef can be successfully relocated to facilitate channel widening. Conditions at Panepane and Pilot Bay are optimal for recolonisation with diversity and abundance. In practical terms, this leaves Pilot Bay as the best relocation site, with North to North-west rock as a reasonable alternative.

 Graeme, M.
Re-colonisation of a relocated boulder reef in Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
University of Otago, 1995
Abstract: Tanea Shelf at the base of Mount Maunganui (Bay of Plenty, New Zealand), is a sub-tidal boulder reef that supports a diverse marine community. To allow for expansion of the Port of Tauranga, 3.2 ha of this reef was dredged up and relocated less than 0.5 km away in Pilot Bay. Colonisation of the relocated boulders was assessed every three months from May 1993 to May 1994 and with a final survey in January 1995. Random photo-quadrats were taken on marked and random boulders, and a random dot method was used to estimate percent cover and species diversity. Monitoring of the relocated reef and the original Tanea Shelf documented the initial colonisation of the Pilot Bay boulders and demonstrated the increasing species diversity of the newly formed community with time. By the end of the study the boulders at the west end of Pilot Bay reef had gained species diversity similar to that found on remaining Tanea Shelf boulders.

 Green, Edmund P.;Short, Frederick T
World Atlas of Sea grasses
University of California Press, 2003
Abstract: Looks at the distribution of sea grass throughout the world including New Zealand. Includes the sea grass status of many NZ harbours including Tauranga. Also covers the threats and management of sea grasses in NZ. There also mentions a sea grass 'limpet' that specialises in sea grass. However, no research exists on this endemic species.

 Green, Malcolm. ;Ellis, J.;Schwarz, A. M.;Green, Nicki.;Lind, Dave.;Bluck, Brian
For and against mangrove control
NIWA, 2003
Abstract: This article answers some frequently asked questions such as, are mangroves a native species? If we get rid of the mangroves, will the mud then disappear? Are mangroves worthless? The article then looks at what options are available for dealing with mangroves and how achievable each is.

 Green, M.;Williamson, B.;Bull, D.;Oldman, J.;MacDonald, I.;Mills, G.
Prediction of Contaminant Accumulation in Auckland Estuaries
NIWA, 2001
Abstract: This report was written by NIWA for Auckland Regional Council (ARC) to develop a way to predict contaminant accumulation over the long term (decades and longer) in sandy estuaries in the Auckland region. The intent was to build on the Urban Stormwater Contaminant (USC) model, which has been used to predict long-term accumulation of contaminants in muddy estuaries. This model was chosen through an international literature review of realistic model(s) to describe sediment mixing. The authors show how mixing can be incorporated into the primary deposition area (PDA) and secondary deposition area (SDA) prediction schemes but concludes that improvements in the actual mixing model will have to await better local data. Although this report is aimed specifically at Auckland estuaries, much of it is applicable to Tauranga Harbour. For example, it explains the processes of contaminant accumulation in estuaries, specifically those from stormwater.

 Green, M. O.
Tauranga Harbour sediment study: implementation and calibration of the USC-3 Model
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2009
Abstract: This report describes the implementation and calibration of the USC-3 model in southern Tauranga Harbour. The model predicts estuarine sedimentation on the planning timescale, which is decades and greater. The model is physically based, and is intended to support decision-making by predicting various changes in the harbour bed sediments associated with catchment development scenarios that will cause changes in sediment runoff from the catchment.

 Green, M.O
Tauranga Harbour sediment study: predictions of Harbour sedimentation under future scenarios
NIWA for Environment Bay of Plenty, 2010
Abstract: Technical Report E2 is one of a series of reports published in the progress of the Tauranga Harbour Sediment Study and modelling developments by NIWA for EBOP. This project is intended to predict sedimentation in the southern Tauranga Harbour under current and future scenarios. One of the goals for this report was to help understand how changes in sediment runoff from the land via the river catchments express as changes to sedimentation in the harbour. The model predicted that climate change will increase the net sediment runoff from every sub-catchment by 8% to 26%. Land use change predictions are variable with increases in sediment runoff in some areas and decreases in others. This report also addresses the net sediment loss from the estuarine system to the ocean and estimates figures of fine sediment loss to the ocean for each sub-catchment. The reported figures range from 15% net loss to 95% loss. The highest figure, 95% is lost to the ocean of fine sediment rather than deposited within the estuarine system is discharged from Wairoa river, which has the greatest freshwater and fine sediment contribution of the rivers in the area. The amount of sediment loss to the ocean depends on the location of the river mouth where effective loss is driven by distance from the estuary mouth or position of discharge into the middle reaches, and the amount of freshwater discharged from the river. Sub-catchments with low freshwater amounts and locations in the far reaches of the estuary have less fine sediment loss to the ocean and greater deposition. In comparison to fine sediment, less coarse sediment is lost to the ocean as the heavier grain size is less easily entrained and moved by the waves and currents. The model developed allows links to be drawn between sub-catchments and the sub-estuaries and the sediment deposition behaviours to be described. Sediment that is deposited in the nearby sub-estuary is not necessary from the nearest catchment source. Notably the increase in sedimentation rates is greater than the increase in sediment discharged from the primary catchment source creating a “positive imbalance.” This imbalance results from mixing of sediment from other sub-catchments in the estuary and where the harbour sediment removal processes are overwhelmed. Finally a description of the potential changes in the mud percentage of the seabed under climate change predictions is presented. Most land bordering sub-estuaries were flagged as ecologically at risk due to predicted changes in the fine sediment deposition. The ecology of those parts of the harbour is likely to be adversely impacted as the changes in sediment runoff occur in the next decades moving towards 2050.

 Green, M. O.;Ellis, J. I.;Schwarz, A. M.;Lind, D.;Bluck, B.
For and against mangrove control
NIWA, 2003
Abstract: The upper North Island a increasingly voicing concerns about the spread of mangroves in their local harbours. They perceive a decrease in amenity because of mangrove spread – reduced access, smelly mud, loss of water views, poorer fishing and shellfish gathering, decreased property values – and they want to know what to do about it. An earnest and urgent debate is developing at the local community level. On one side are residents who want to reclaim their waterways by cutting and removing mangroves; on the other are residents who want to let nature be. Occupying the middle ground are residents who want to draw a line in the sand and contain mangroves at present levels.

 Sally Greenway;Rosalie Smith;Brian Chudleigh;Paul Cuming
Birds of Waikaraka Estuary and Tauranga Harbour
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2006
Abstract: This booklet gives:
  • Information about the birds that inhabit the Waikaraka Estuary Inlet and the Tauranga Harbour;
  • Help for deciding what to plant to provide food and shelter for birds;
  • Information on how you can contribute to predator control and so increase bird numbers and diversity;
  • Information on what you can do so there are fewer threats to birds; and
  • Reference material providing in-depth information about birds and native planting.

 Gregor, J.; Garrett, N.; Gilpin, B.; Randall, C.; Saunders, D
Use of Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis with Faecal Indicators to Determine Sources of Contamination
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2002
Abstract: Both human and non-human faecal contamination of environmental waters pose a risk to human health that can be reduced if the source can be identified and responsibility for mitigation accepted. Traditional microbiological indicators are rarely adequate for source identification but some chemical indicators offer promise. In this work, the similarities and differences of selected chemical profiles of different faecal effluent types have been modelled using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Human effluents can be distinguished from non-human effluents by the presence of fluorescent whitening agents, and the concentrations or ratios of concentrations of the faecal stanols coprostanol and 24-ethylcoprostanol can distinguish most of the non-human effluent types considered. To allow for the effect of variable dilution when effluents enter environmental waters, ratios of concentrations will be required to establish a model, and a model more complex than CART will be required to apportion multiple effluent-type contamination.

 Gregor, K.
Grazers of Estuarine Ulva in Tauranga Harbour
University of Auckland, 1995
Abstract: There was a demand after the 1991 Ulva (sea lettuce) blooms in the Tauranga harbour to better understand the biology and ecology of the life history of Ulva.This study is one of 2 Auckland university (Masters') thesis to investigate Ulva (Snow, 1995 was the other student). This thesis investigates the role of grazers in the removal of Ulva from soft sediment habitat. The study concluded that intertidal gastropod molluscs, were unable to effectively control periodic blooms. The most effective grazers were the Parore (Girella tricuspidata) and the black slug (Scutus breviculus). Although, biological agencies can reduce Ulva biomass, the influence of currents and winds remain the major factors affecting the removal of Ulva from the Tauranga harbour.

 Gregory, M. R.
Accumulation and distribution of virgin plastic granules on New Zealand beaches
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1978
Abstract: Numbers of pellets are greatest near Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch, which are the important source areas. However, pellets are also found on beaches remote from these cities, and some may have come from eastern Australia. Because they degrade slowly, plastics can be a significant contributor to coastal pollution, but the environmental hazards of their accumulation are uncertain. The concentrations of plastic particles on New Zealand beaches between 1972-76 Gregory (1978) surveyed over 300 New Zealand beaches in order to determine the distribution of small (<0.01-<0.08g) plastic granules and pellets in the foreshore environment. Specifically, this study looked at virgin plastic granules, which are those used by the plastics industry to manufacture products. This study did not investigate the abundance of other types of plastic litter. Virgin plastic granules are thought to enter the environment through spillage and loss during transport. This study identified that the plastics virgin polyethylene and polypropylene were common and polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride were rare on New Zealand beaches at the time of measurement. Pellets tended to accumulate on beaches with fine sediment sizes and were seldom recorded on gravel and boulder beaches. These particles can be hazardous to marine life and can accumulate in the stomachs of fish and sea birds. High pellet concentrations were recorded around Auckland often exceeding 10 000 per metre. Gregory gives a conservative estimate that there were over 1000 t of pellets in the New Zealand foreshore environment at the time of measurement. This amount was much less than figures reported for locations around the North Atlantic. These particles are not readily degradable and are likely to remain in the environment for some time.

Bivalvia in Animal energetics Vol. 2: Bivalvia through reptilian
Academic Press, 1987
Abstract: This book reviews the bio-energetic literature across a spectrum of animal taxa. Along with its companion, Volume 1, the series addresses animal energetic from protoza through the lower vertebrates.

 Griffiths, G. A.
Spatial and temporal variability in suspended sediment yields of North Island basins, New Zealand
JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 2007
Abstract: Specific annual suspended sediment yields and their standard deviations are presented for 47 basins of North Island, New Zealand. Most of the variance in yields is explained by catchment mean rainfall. Rivers with similar flow range have similar suspended sediment concentration ratings, independent of differing watershed lithology and regolith, except for six basins having an abundance of soft fine sediments. Prediction equations for yield and its standard deviation are derived for four essentially arbitrary regions. AU feature rainfall as the independent variable. Differences between regions may owe to variations in intensity, frequency, and duration patterns of storms and, in one area, to bed material size as well. The temporal distribution of annual yields from a basin m be modelled by a two-parameter lognormal function: the prediction equations above may be used to evaluate this function at a site for which suspended sediment data are unavailable.

 Grove, S.L.,Probert, P.K.,
Sediment macrobenthos of upper Otago Harbour, New Zealand
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1999
Abstract: Sediment macrobenthos of the Upper Otago Harbour, south-eastern New Zealand, was surveyed in 1993. Replicate samples (0.1 m2 sieved on 1-mm mesh) were taken using a diver-operated suction sampler from 15 stations, including some suspected to be contaminated. Multivariate analysis of abundance data was used to examine patterns of benthic community structure and their relationship to environmental variables: sediment grain size, organic content, heavy metal concentration (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb), sea-floor temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, water depth, and macro-algal content. Samples from Sawyers Bay, an area previously identified as impacted by sewage and industrial waste, were set apart from all other stations. A combination of percent sand, macro-algal content, water depth, and chromium concentration correlated best with the observed community structure.

 Guerry, AD.;Menge, BA.;Dunmore, R. A.
Effects of consumers and enrichment on abundance and diversity of benthic algae in a rocky intertidal community
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2009
Abstract: Human alteration of nutrient cycling and the densities of important consumers have intensified the importance of understanding how nutrients and consumers influence the structure of ecological systems. We examined the effects of both grazing and nutrient enrichment on algal abundance and diversity in a high-intertidal limpet-macro-algal community on the South Island of New Zealand, a relatively nutrient-poor environment. We used a fully factorial design with three levels each of grazing (manipulations of limpet and snail densities) and nutrients (nutrient-diffusers attached to the rock). Top-down control by grazers appears to be the driving organizing mechanism for algal communities in this system, with strong negative effects of grazing on algal diversity and abundance across all levels of nutrient enrichment. However, in contrast to the conclusions drawn from the analysis of the whole algal community, there was an interactive effect of grazing and enrichment on foliose algae, an important component of the algal system. When herbivory was reduced to very low levels, enrichment generated increases in the abundance and biomass of foliose algae. As expected, top-down control was the primary determinant of algal community structure in this system, controlling abundance and diversity of macrophytes on the upper shore. Contrary to expectations, however, increased nutrients had no community-wide effects, although foliose algal abundance increases were greatest with high nutrients and reduced grazing. It seems likely that most of the corticated algal species have limited capacity to respond to nutrient pulses in this nutrient-poor environment.

 Guinda, X.;Juanes, J. A.;Puente, A.;Revilla, J. A.
Comparison of two methods for quality assessment of macroalgae assemblages, under different pollution types
Ecological Indicators, 2008
Abstract: The selection of adequate methodologies for the assessment of different biological quality elements is urgently needed for the application of the water framework directive (WFD 2000/60/EEC). In the case of macroalgae in coastal waters of the North East Atlantic, two methodologies have been proposed: the reduced species list (RSL) index and the quality of rocky bottoms (CFR) index. Both methods use multimetric approaches to evaluate the quality of macroalgae assemblages, which are based on community characteristics (species/populations richness, cover, percentage of opportunistic species, ecological state groups ratio, etc.). In this paper the results of applying both indices on three different types of pollution gradients in the North coast of Spain (bay of Biscay) are presented, in order to test their usefulness and intercalibration possibilities. In general terms, the CFR index responded more accurately than the RSL index to the pollution gradients under study. With respect to the indicators used in the current evaluation, richness, opportunistic species and cover seemed to be the most accurate for quality assessment of macroalgal communities. While the first two indicators are taken into account in both indices, the latter (cover) is only considered in the CFR index, even though the abundance of macroalgae is one of the aspects to be included in the evaluation of this biological element, according to the WFD. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 Guino, D.,
Soil Quality in the Bay of Plenty
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2009
Abstract: Temporal changes in topsoil qualities of dairy pasture and maize cropping sites were monitored periodically over a 10-year period. Results indicate that for both land uses, many of the topsoil quality parameters were being maintained and these are within the provisional target values set by Landcare Research New Zealand for production and/or environmental criterion. However, the steady increase in the levels of anaerobically mineralisable N and Olsen P in dairy sites is a concern. High values of anaerobically mineralisable N could potentially lead to increased nitrate leaching while high values of Olsen P could lead to P-rich sediments polluting water bodies. Dairy farmers should therefore exercise judicious use of N and P fertilisers through periodic soil testing and farm nutrient budgeting. Six new maize sites were established and sampled for topsoil qualities as well. With the exception of low aggregate stability values of most soils, mean soil quality values were within the desirable provisional target ranges established by Landcare Research. The soil quality monitoring programme is invaluable in informing land managers of changes in soil quality on their properties over time particularly when there are clear trends in declining soil health so that remedial actions can be promptly undertaken. Soil quality monitoring should therefore continue well into the future with a view towards expansion into areas that are undergoing land use intensification (e.g. recent forest to dairy farm conversions); inclusion of trace elements in the regular monitoring as opposed to when the need arises only (e.g. as part of Ministry for the Environment’s (MfE’s) requirements in State of the Environment reporting); and inclusion of more biological measures of soil quality such as soil microbial biodiversity (earthworms, microbiological activity, etc.), respiration, microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity, etc. as an indication of soil well-being.


Hack, L. A.;Tremblay, L. A.;Wratten, S. D.;Forrester, G.;Keesing, V.
Toxicity of estuarine sediments using a full life-cycle bioassay with the marine copepod Robertsonia propinqua
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2008


Abstract: Estuarine sediment contamination is a growing significant ecological issue in New Zealand. Methods of assessing toxicity and ecological impacts in a cost effective way are currently limited. Further to that is a need to develop bioassays that generate data quickly and cost effectively and have ecological relevance to the wider community. A chronic full life-cycle bioassay to assess the toxicity of New Zealand estuarine sediments using the marine harpacticoid copepod Robertsonia propinqua has been investigated. Sediment samples were collected from the Bay of Plenty region and included two polluted and one reference site. Sources of pollutants in the contaminated field sites originated from a variety of sources and generally include nutrients, pesticides and herbicides and the pollutants zinc, copper, lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Conversely, the reference site was exposed to low levels of contaminants due to the relatively undeveloped catchment. Adult male and female copepods were exposed to field collected sediments for 24 days under flow-through conditions at 21 degrees C and 12 h L:D cycles. Five endpoints were recorded: male and female survival, fecundity (number of gravid females per replicate at the end of the test), clutch size per female, number of eggs per sample and juvenile survival (number of nauplii and copepodites per replicate at the end of the test). Adult mortality was observed in all sediment samples but the number of males, gravid females, clutch size per female and number of eggs produced were not affected by either the contaminated or reference sediment samples. However, the contaminated sediments did reduce reproductive output (i.e. nauplii and copepodite production). Therefore, we conclude that reproductive endpoints provide a good measure of sediment-associated contaminant effects compared with adult R. propinqua survivorship. It may be that a change in focus from chemical thresholds without ecological relevance or lethal dose threshold methods, to more subtle but ecologically significant elements of faunal life, such as reproductive success, are a more sensitive and a long term ecologically informative method.



Hack, L. A.;Tremblay, L. A.;Wratten, S. D.;Lister, A.;Keesing, V.

Benthic meiofauna community composition at polluted and non-polluted sites in New Zealand intertidal environments
Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2007


Abstract: Meiofauna composition was investigated for six field sites, including polluted and non-polluted sites, within two regions (Auckland and Bay of Plenty) during winter (July-August 2004) in the North Island of New Zealand. Physico-chemical parameters were measured during the sampling period and meiofauna distribution and abundance were compared with these measured parameters. Analysis of meiofauna abundance indicated that foraminiferans, nematodes and ostracods were the taxa that contributed to the variability between field sites within the Auckland region. However, no clear taxa dominance was seen in the Bay of Plenty region. Comparison of meiofauna abundance and physico-chemical parameters was done using multivariate analysis (PRIMER). However, no clear relationships between the parameters were observed in any field site in either region. The Shannon-Weiner index of diversity did not show any clear differentiation between polluted and non-polluted field sites. Therefore, from the present study, the taxa or physico-chemical parameters used could not effectively characterise pollution at the investigated field sites.



Physical disturbance and marine benthic communities: life in unconsolidated sediments
Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, 1994

Abstract: This review examines the physical and biological processes which move marine intertidal and subtidal sediments and considers available information on the consequences of physical disturbance for benthic communities. The agents examined include waves and currents, bioturbation, fishing and dredging and the intensities and scales upon which the various processes operate is considered. The inter-relationships between the various disturbance processes are also examined.



Hallas, S.
Stakeholder views about the marine environment and its protection
Department of Conservation, 2005


Abstract: This report presents the findings of some explorative research carried out by the Centre for Research, Evaluation and Social Assessment (CRESA), to support the implementation of the Department of Conservation’s (DOC’s) Building Community Support for Marine Protection’ strategy. The research investigated aspects of public understanding of, support for, and involvement in the marine environment and marine protection issues. Fourteen focus-group meetings were held with a range of stakeholders in Whangarei, Auckland and Nelson, New Zealand. The research describes focus-group meeting participants’ marine experiences, their perspectives on marine health and observed changes to the marine environment, and their aspirations for the future. It also describes their views about the value of, and threats to, a healthy marine environment, as well as current and possible future protection strategies and mechanisms. We discuss how these results, and participants’ views about effective approaches to education and advocacy, have implications for DOC’s implementation of the strategy.



Halliday, J.;Thrush, S.;Hewitt, J.;Funnell, G.
How will habitat chance affect intertidal animals in estuaries
NIWA, 2004


Abstract: Discusses how the authors have developed several statitical models that will allow researchers to forecast changes in the distribution and abundance of several important intertidal species as sediment mud content changes. For the particular study, 19 sites in 18 North Island estuaries, harbours and embayments were surveyed, including Tauranga Harbour. Two models were used - an occurrence model and a maximum density model. The results of the modelling of the above survey indicated that most of the (modelled) species have habitat preferences either for sand, mud or mixed sediment.



Hancock, N.;Hume, T.;Swales, A.
Tauranga Harbour sediment study: harbour bed sediments
NIWA for Environment Bay of Plenty, 2009


Abstract: This report was conducted by NIWA for EBOP with the purpose of assessing the sediment sources, sediment characteristics and the dispersal and deposition of sediments in the southern Tauranga Harbour. Technical Report C1 is a report on the progress for developing the modelling component of the Tauranga Harbour Sediment Study. The location of this report is the southern Tauranga Harbour, which is divided into 26 sub-estuaries for the purposes of the study. Technical Report C1 specifically covers the sediment grain size statistics, composition and patterns of accumulation rates. Data from previous studies of the Harbour was used to identify grain size statistics and gain information on the sediment composition gravel/sand/mud percentage, and sorting parameters for the sub-estuaries. Percentage mud composition for the sub-estuaries ranged from 0.7% to 48.10% mud. The information gained was used to categorise the sub-estuaries into 11 types. These category types identify areas of similar sediment types, geomorphology and where similar environments of sediment transport, deposition and wave/tidal intensities. Sediment accumulation rates on tidal flats in the sub-estuaries ranged fro9m 0.75 to 1.57mm yr-1 over the previous 23 to 90 years. Findings suggest that there are low net accumulation rates of fine sediments on the intertidal flats over the last 50 to 100 years. These rates are low in comparison to the rates reports for other North Island estuaries. Auckland averaged an intertidal flat accumulation of 4.7mm yr-1, Central Waitemata Harbour averaged 3.2mm yr-1, and the Firth of Thames averaged a high rate of around 25mm yr-1 since the 1930s with a 3-5 fold increase in the sediment accumulation rate following mangrove colonisation in the Firth of Thames. Findings from sediment cores undertaken for this study found relatively deep surface mixing (indicated by deep 7Be data) and shallow 210PB concentrations in comparison to other North Island estuaries. This implies low accumulation rates of fine sediments on the intertidal flats due to reworking of wave action and burrowing organisms. The evidence of deep mixing in surface sediments indicated that large areas of wave-exposed intertidal flats are not long term sinks for fine sediments.



Hansen, N.
History of Tauranga Harbour and Port
Port of Tauranga, 1997


Abstract: The first European ships started arriving in the Tauranga Harbour in 1826. Cargo was initially ferried to shore by smaller boats, until wharfs and jetties were established. It appears that the Tauranga Borough and Tauranga City Council administered the town wharf and collected fees. In 1912 the Tauranga Harbour Board was constituted under the Tauranga Harbour Act. The role of the Harbour Board was to administer harbour assets - wharfs, sheds, and landings. In 1988 the Port of Tauranga Limited was formed. Between 1953 and 1994, cargo tonnage increased from 55,000 tons to 7,000,000 tons. Work on the Mount wharf started in 1952. The report is about the history of the Tauranga Harbour and Port activities. The author discusses the early history of harbour activities prior to 1826 through to 1997 and the development and expansion of Port and Harbour activities. The administrative bodies are discussed in detail. The report provides some detail on the changes to the harbour environment and harbour works and reclamations.



Hansen, N.
Ten busy years history of Tauranga Harbour & Port of Tauranga Limited 1989-1999
Port of Tauranga, 1999


Abstract: The report discusses Port developments between 1989 through to 1999. The report notes notable events through the ten year period, and the commercial success of the Port.



Harms, C.
Dredge spoil dispersion from an inner shelf dump mound
University of Waikato, 1989



Harrison and Grierson and Partners
Pilot Bay reclamation
Mount Maunganui Borough Council and Tauranga Harbour Board, 1982


Abstract: Mount Maunganui Borough Council and the Bay of Plenty Harbour Board jointly propose a reclamation of approximately 1.6350 ha in the inner Pilot Bay area at Mount Maunganui. The proposal is more fully described in Section 2 of this report and in accompanying plans. The proposed reclamation will be developed to provide a large, all-tide landing ramp, several small shallow ramps and parking for cars, boats and trailers. The Mount Maunganui Borough Council is completing the proposed development as the local authority adjoining the harbour area, with the assistance of the Bay of Plenty Harbour Board on both construction and technical matters.



Harte, D.; Vere-Jones, D.
Differences in coverage between the PDE and New Zealand local earthquake catalogues
New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 1999


Abstract: This paper examines systematic differences between the coverage of New Zealand earthquakes in the New Zealand local catalogue and the PDE catalogue put out by the United States National Earthquake Information Centre (NEIC). Only events with local magnitudes M-L greater than or equal to 5 in the New Zealand catalogue, and with body-wave magnitude m(b) greater than or equal to 4.5 in the PDE catalogue, are considered in the study, which covers the period 1965-93, and a series of four quadrats covering the landmass of New Zealand and extending between latitudes 33-49 degrees S, and longitudes 165-183 degrees E. The main differences found are: (1) before 1983, the PDE catalogue misses many events (mainly of intermediate depths) with M-L greater than or equal to 5 listed in the New Zealand catalogue; after 1983 most of the New Zealand shallow events are recorded, but some intermediate events are still missing; (2) the New Zealand catalogue misses many events with m(b) greater than or equal to 4.5 listed in the PDE catalogue as occurring to the northeast of New Zealand, and a few listed as occurring to its southwest; otherwise, virtually all events with m(b) greater than or equal to 4.5 listed in the PDE catalogue are also found in the New Zealand catalogue; (3) the epicentres of events to the northeast of New Zealand are systematically displaced to the east in the New Zealand catalogue, relative to the PDE catalogue; many such events listed as having intermediate depths in the New Zealand catalogue are classified as shallow events in the PDE catalogue; (4) this region aside, for shallow events in the given magnitude ranges, there seems to be no systematic difference between the PDE body-wave magnitude m(b) and the New Zealand local magnitude M-L; however, magnitudes of individual events may differ by up to one unit in either direction; (5) for intermediate depth events there is a small but systematic tendency for m(b) to be less than M-L for the same event; the effect appears to increase with depth down the descending plate; (6) an extremely large swarm occurred in Bay of Plenty in 1984, some 9 months after the Edgecumbe earthquake, and marked the start of an unusually active period in the northeast of the region covered by the New Zealand catalogue; the swarm was followed 11 years later by a magnitude 7 event off East Cape, which itself initiated an exceptionally large aftershock sequence; (7) both catalogues indicate a modest increase in activity, mainly at intermediate depths, in the northern and central regions of New Zealand, in the last few years of the study (1992-95).



Hartog, C.D.
Seagrasses: transplant experiments, productivity and consumer ecology
Aquaculture, 1974



Harty, Chris
Mangrove planning and management in New Zealand and South East Australia - A reflection on approaches
Ocean & Coastal Management, 2009


Abstract: The mangrove Avicennia marina var. australasica occurs on the temperate coastlines of New Zealand's north island and New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia in South East Australia. Mangroves are increasing in area with seaward expansion in New Zealand and landward expansion in temperate Australia. Their expansion has been viewed as unnatural. With pressure from residential and coastal development, planning and management authorities in both countries are being exerted to allow for the removal and destruction of mangroves, partly for protecting and re-instating other impacted habitats such as saltmarsh and mudflats and partly to maintain recreational and amenity values of coastal communities. Estuary management planning is a useful tool that can integrate and balance policy directions for mangroves and other estuarine habitats in a strategic manner. Mangroves should not be considered as `bad' in isolation but viewed as part of the mosaic of tidal habitats important for estuary function and health.



Hatton, C.;Thomson, M.; Donovan, W.F.;Larcombe, M.F.
Ecological monitoring survey of the lower reaches of the major Bay of Plenty rivers, the Ohau Channel, and parts of Tauranga Harbour
Bioresearches Ltd, Winter 1975


Abstract: This report presents the results of the third in a series of ecological surveys carried out for the BOP Catchment Commission and Regional Water Board. This survey was carried out in winter conditions on August 1975. The results of the earlier surveys are presented in two reports “Ecological monitoring survey of the lower reaches of the major Bay of Plenty Rivers, the Ohau Channel, and parts of the Tauranga Harbour “ (Winter 1974) and (Summer 1975) by Bioreseraches Ltd. The aim of this survey was to determine whether the change observed in earlier surveys (Winter 1974; Summer 1975) were seasonal or long term in nature. An ecological survey was carried out of all the ‘permanent’ river stations established in the Winter 1974 survey. At the same time a brief explanation was made of two Tauranga Harbour transects – Reratukahina and Waikareao- in order to obtain further information on the nature of algal growth in these areas. Sampling methods used are described in the Winter 1974 and Summer 1975 reports. As mentioned above, the only two Tauranga Harbour sites monitored in this survey were the – Reratukahina and Waikareao Inlets/Estuaries. The results of this survey compared with the results of previous surveys suggest that although there have been some marked changes in both density of algae and grazing gastropods since the Summer 1975 Survey, it appears that the grazing gastropods are effectively controlling the algal growth and maintaining a relatively stable ecological situation.



Hawes, I.
Research Directed Towards the Management of Sea Lettuce in Bay of Plenty Coastal Water
NIWA, 1992



Hay, C.H.
The dispersal of sporophytes of undaria pinnatifida by coastal shipping in New Zealand, and implications for further dispersal of undaria in France
British Psychological Journal, 1990


Abstract: Sporophytes of the adventive Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida, recently discovered growing in New Zealand and Tasmanian waters, are apparently spread by coastal shipping. Mature sporophytes, up to 1 m long and growing just below the waterline on the sides of ships, can be transported intact over hundreds of kilometres between New Zealand ports. The hulls of vessels can also be seeded with Undaria spores, and the gametophytes or the microscopic sporophytes transported to other harbours where the sporophytes mature. Commercial vessels, laid up pending sale and thus immobile for long periods, are especially prone to spread the plant because their waterline is at a constant depth. Such conditions permit the development of a fringing band of Undaria sporophytes along the ship's hull. In France Undaria was accidentally introduced to the Mediterranean coast near Sete before 1971, and intentionally planted on the coast of Brittany in 1983. The likely further dispersal of the kelp in this region is discussed in the light of these observations from New Zealand.



Hayden, B. J.
Evaluation of species with potential for aquaculture in New Zealand: a draft discussion document
Fisheries Research Centre, Ministry of Fisheries, 1988


Abstract: Thìs paper contains brief notes on a selection of potential candidate species for aquaculture. It has been compiled to illustrate the wide range of marine and freshwater species that could be cultured in New Zealand, some of the factors which need to be considered when evaluatÍing the potential of these, and the diversity of culture methods possible species have been selected to give a range of examples of marine and freshwater, exotic and indigenous, fish and shel lfish. Inclusion of a species in this paper does not necessarily indicate that MAFFish considers that culture of the species will be successful. The list is not comprehensive as there are a large number of species whjch could be grown. For instance it does not include the culture of feed species such as brine shrimps and rotifers, but these species should not be overlooked as candidates for aquaculture ventures.



Hayward, B. W.;Cochran, U.;Southall, K.;Wiggins, E.;Grenfell, H. R.;Sabaa, A.;Shane, P. R.;Gehrels, R.
Micropalaeontological evidence for the Holocene earthquake history of the eastern Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, and a new index for determining the land elevation record
Quaternary Science Reviews, 2004


Abstract: Fossil foraminifera and diatoms are used to identify sudden, probably earthquake-related, elevational changes in three Holocene sedimentary sequences from the high-tidal fringes of Ohiwa Harbour, eastern Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Modern analogue calibration sets of faunal and floral census data are used to estimate palaeosalinities and palaeotidal elevations that help quantify seismic-related, vertical displacements. Age models for the three vibracored sequences are built on a combination of tephrostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating. A new index, the land elevation record (LER), is introduced to graphically portray earthquake-related vertical land displacements on a time-depth diagram. Also plotted are elements used to calculate LER, such as the indicative depth estimated from microfossils, inferred sediment compaction, and the New Zealand Holocene palaeo-sea-level curve. All three Ohiwa cores, spread over 3 km of coast, contain both freshwater and intertidal sediments. A prominent erosional contact between freshwater peat or soil and overlying intertidal mud, records a major Subsidence event in each core of c. 2m, dated at ca 2600 cal years BP. The deepest core (7.4 m) indicates that this is the only substantial vertical displacement event to have occurred in the last 8 ka. A small subsidence event (ca 0.3-0.7 m) is indicated close to the top of one core, but is not present in the other two sites. This may be the result of a local land subsidence during the poorly known Taneatua Earthquake of 1866. There is no historic human record of earthquake displacements around Ohiwa, but mid-Pleistocene, interglacial, marine sediments have been uplifted 10-60 m in several identified fault blocks. Our study provides conclusive evidence of at least 2 in of earthquake-related. Subsidence during the Holocene, with a recurrence time of major earthquakes of ca 5 ka.



Healy, Terry
Channel dredging, dredge spoil migration and downdrift
New Zealand Geographer, 1994


Abstract: A major dredging programme to deepen the shipping channels at the Port of Tauranga has seen some 5 million m³ of mainly sandy sediment dredged from the shipping channels and dumped on the adjacent inner shelf. An Environmental Impact Assessment has identified major concerns and consent granting authorities have proposed a monitoring programme.



Healy, T.
Review of capital dredging impacts for the Port of Tauranga Ltd 1992 major channel deepening and widening programme
Port of Tauranga Ltd, 1996


Abstract: The purpose of this report is to summarise the results of the monitoring programme implemented as a condition of the consents granted to permit Port of Tauranga Ltd to undertake its 1991 major channel deepening and widening programme. The programme involved dredging some 5 million m3 from the entrance and harbour channels. In the final event, the dredging of the lower Otumoetai Channel, allowed for in the consents and potentially involving some 450,000 m3, was not carried out in the major dredging episode.



Healy, Terry
Chapter Fourteen Muddy coasts of mid-latitude oceanic islands on an active plate margin-New Zealand
Proceedings in Marine Science – Elsevier, 2002


Abstract: The oceanic islands comprising New Zealand lie astride the boundary between the Australian-Indian and the Pacific Plate. As such, these large islands are subjected to the geological processes of an active subduction zone, including volcanism, seismic instability, and rapid tectonic uplift of the plate marginal on-lapping soft Tertiary deposits. This hilly-to-mountainous unstable setting is a pre-condition for remarkable regolith instability, allowing exceptional erosion rates of the resulting steepland catchments. New Zealand possesses an extensive and often indented coastline exceeding some 10,000km in length. This long coastline is a reflection partly of the essentially drowned character of the hilly-to-mountainous island structure, and partly of the landscape forming processes. Two examples are the vigorous fluvial downcutting active over much of the country, and Pleistocene alpine valley glaciations which has created deep re-entrant fjords in south Westland. Sections of the New Zealand coastline exhibiting muddy coast characteristics, include the inner parts of harbours and estuaries, especially around the North Island coast. The thickest and most laterally extensive mud deposits occur in the structural graben named as the ‘Firth’ of Thames where Holocene mud deposits are known to be 10s of meters thick (Middleton 1989; Naish 1990; Chick 1999). However in some areas of high mud supply from adjacent catchments, even the shallow shelf may be very muddy, despite the high energy ocean conditions, for example the broad embayments of Poverty and Hawke Bay of the East Coast region. The aim of this chapter is to prevent the various morphodynamic types of muddy coast in New Zealand, the processes leading to their formation, and the characteristics of the sedimentation regime.



Healy, T.; McCabe, B.
Physical and chemical characteristics of material to be dredged and dumped as spoil
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 1990


Abstract: Sediment that has accumulated on the western bank of the Cutter channel is to be maintenance dredged and dumped at sea during the 1990/91 dredging programme due to commence October 1990. This report, in accordance with the requirements of Water Right No.2192, describes the physical and chemical characteristics of these sediments and comments on their suitability for marine disposal in the approved dump ground.



Healy, T.; Roberts, S.
Analysis of bottom sediment samples from the Stella Passage
Port of Tauranga Ltd, 1997


Abstract: This report presents the findings of an investigation to ascertain (i) the baseline (1996) chemical concentrations for heavy metals of the Stella Passage and (ii) attempt to determine the origin of the black organic-rich matter in the surface of the Stella Passage.



Healy, T.R.
Progradation at the Entrance, Tauranga Harbour, Bay of Plenty
New Zealand Geographer, 1977



Healy, T.R.
Channel Dredging, Dredge Spoil Migration and Downdrift: Impacts at a large tidal inlet, Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
New Zealand Geographer, 1994


Abstract: A major dredging programme to deepen the shipping channels at the Port of Tauranga has seen some 5 million m³ of mainly sandy sediment dredged from the shipping channels and dumped on the adjacent inner shelf. An Environmental Impact Assessment has identified major concerns and consent granting authorities have proposed a monitoring programme.



Healy, T. R.; McCabe, B.; Grace, R.; Harms, C.
Environmental assessment programme for Tauranga Harbour dredging and inner shelf spoil dumping
Bay of Plenty Harbour Board, 1988


Abstract: The report is an assessment of environmental issues of sediments, biology and chemistry, and coastal environment and marine resource use to support an application to dispose of dredged material at sea. According to the report, the disposal of dredged spoil is unlikely to have any serious effects on the ecology of the islands and emergent reefs inshore of the dump zone. Similarly, the analysis of surface sediments are likely to be conservative and pollution effects are most likely to occur in the top centimere of harbour sediments. The report notes that recreational use around dumping grounds is the least popular recreational use area.



Healy, T. R.; McCabe, B.; Thompson, G.
Port of Tauranga Limited Channel Deepening and Widening Dredge Programme 1991-92 Environmental Impact Assessment, Part 1
Port of Tauranga Limited, 1991


Abstract: The Port of Tauranga has limitations on the vessel length and draft and the ability of the Port to service larger vessels. In order to provide cost effective port services required by the region, it is necessary that the Port have the ability to accommodate larger ships servicing New Zealand. Therefore, channel improvements are necessary to accommodate vessels. The channel requires an excavation of 6 million m3 of sediment. The cost of the works is estimated to be $23M, for which there is a predicted return of $31M to the region and a net revenue impact of $300M by the end of the century (year 2000). The operational impacts are considered minimal. Impacts on Tangata Whenua are not expected to affect traditional Maori fisheries or cultural activities in any great level. Monitoring to date has shown no discernible effects on recreational fishing and diving outside the dump zones. This is expected to apply for this disposal programme.



Healy, T. R.; Thompson, G.; Mathew, J.; Pilditch, C.; Tian, F.
Assessment of environmental effects for Port of Tauranga Ltd, maintenance dredging and disposal
Port of Tauranga, 1998


Abstract: Maintenance dredging has been required since the establishment of the dredged navigational channels through the tidal inlet and delta system in 1968. With the deepening of the channels for larger draught vessels the maintenance dredging requirement has increased and remains a requirement of the port for the long-term future. The purpose of this report is to support an application for a resource consent application to undertake and dispose of maintenance dredging associated with the operation of the Port of Tauranga. The maintenance has typically been undertaken by a trailer suction dredge. The justification for the maintenance programme is seen in the increase in trade. Public and Tangata Whenua consultation and associated issues are addressed in the Assessment of Environmental Effects. Other options for disposal were considered, however, were found inappropriate for the type of dredged material. Impacts on benthic communities from dredged dumping material showed that at the end of a 3 year survey there was no evidence for large irreversible change in the benthic macrofauna which could be attributed to the dredging programme. Impacts on disposal of dredged material are expected to be minimal.



Healy, T. R.; Wilkins, A. L.; Leipe, T.
Extractives from a Coniferous Bark Dump in Coastal Estuarine Sediments
Coastal Education & Research Foundation, Inc, 1997


Abstract: An investigation was made of intertidal sediments in the vicinity of bark dumps adjacent to the shoreline created in the 1960's as bark waste from a log export port at Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand. Samples collected in a drainage ditch and intertidal sediments near the bark dumps were analysed by GC-FID and by total ion and selected ion mode GC/MS for concentration of log and bark sourced resin acids such as dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid and pimaric acid. Only low concentrations of resin acids (mainly dehydroabietic acid and pimaric acid), together with a series of fatty acids (mainly 16:0 to 30:0 fatty acids) and hydrocarbons (mainly C22 to C23 n-alkanes) were detected in the sediments of the intertidal flats. Chemical analyses indicated the sediments to be generally toxic.


Broad classification of New Zealand inlets with emphasis on residence times
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1976


Abstract: The study investigated the circulation patterns and residence time of thirty two New Zealand coastal inlets. Based on ratios of their physical parameters, the study classified them into seven groups with probable similar circulation patterns. Among the coastal inlets, 18 of them have predominant tidal flow, including Moutere, Waimea, Aotea, Whanganui, Avon-Heathcote, Tauranga, Parengarenga, Porirua-Pauatahanui, Kawhia, Nelosn, Rangaunu, Raglan, Whangarei, Bluff, Otago, Hokianga, Manukau, and Whangaruru. The other fourteen range from long narrow sounds with probable strong vertical circulation (e.g., Pelorus Sound) to large bays with strong mean horizontal circulations (e.g., Tasmand and Hawke Bays). The study also estimated the residence time of those inlets with a ratio of tidal compartment to total volume greater than 4. For example, a residence time of 1-3 months was estimated for Tasman Bay, while for Pelorus sound, the estimate was about 20d.



Heather, B. D.; Robertson, H. A.
The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand Vol. 1
Penguin Books, 2005


Abstract: The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand is astonishingly comprehensive, covering the identification, status, and distribution of wild birds seen anywhere in the New Zealand region. Up to date and featuring the latest research, this handy volume represents every bird species of New Zealand in seventy-four stunning, original, colour paintings by a leading New Zealand bird artist, including rare and recently extinct species. Renowned New Zealand bird experts Barrie Heather and Hugh Robertson have written a brief and informative identification guide which provides the reader with a summary of what is known about the birds of New Zealand. Each page contains a colour plate and accompanying distribution map on the facing page. The maps provide sufficient plumage and behavioral details that should help identify the species, sex and/or age of the bird in the field as well as where species breeding in New Zealand may be found in suitable habitat. An additional handbook section provides details on distribution, populations, conservation, breeding, behavior, and feeding habitats of each species. Maps for vagrants, stragglers, and non-native seabirds, and for migratory waders (which can turn up in any estuary around the coast) are also included in this section.



Heesch, S.; Broom, J.;Neill, K.;Farr, T.; Dalen, J.; Nelson, W.
Genetic diversity and possible origins of New Zealand populations of Ulva
Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry and Biosecurity New Zealand, 2007


Abstract: The genetic diversity of the green algal genus Ulva sensu lato in New Zealand was surveyed to identify the species present, and to assess their status as native or potentially introduced entities. Data were obtained for 581 samples collected from within the New Zealand EEZ, ranging from the Kermadec Islands to the Auckland and Antipodes Islands (and includes the Tauranga Harbour). Both pristine and human-modified environments were represented in the sampling sites visited. Species recognition in Ulva using molecular sequencing data was achieved using the rbcL gene. Twenty-four genetically distinct taxa belonging to three genera were discovered in New Zealand waters – Ulva (19 species), Umbraulva (4 species) and Gemina (1 species). Of the 19 species of Ulva reported here, thirteen were able to be identified to species. The remaining 6 currently cannot be assigned to known species groups based on close homology with sequences in GenBank. These species may include undescribed, endemic taxa, or may represent cryptogenic species. The genus Umbraulva is recorded for the first time for the New Zealand region (and for the Southern Hemisphere) and 4 species were distinguished. One of these we consider to be introduced to the region and the other three species appear to be new and undescribed indigenous taxa. Subantarctic samples provided the first evidence of the existence of the genus Gemina since its description in 1952: sequence data confirmed that it is distinct from Ulva and Umbraulva. A number of the species identified in this study can be distinguished through a combination of growth form, morphological, ecological and distributional characters. However there remain considerable problems in distinguishing a number of other species by morphological characters alone. Based on information such as distribution in New Zealand (percentage of samples occurring in highly modified environments and/or areas with much boat traffic) as well as the genetic similarity of New Zealand samples to material from overseas, we have concluded that at least 5 species have been introduced to the New Zealand region – Ulva armoricana, U. californica, U. flexuosa, U. lactuca, and Umbraulva olivascens.



Heesch, S.;Broom, J. E. S.; Neill, K. F.; Farr, T. J.; Dalen, J. L.; Nelson, W. A.
Ulva, Umbraulva and Gemina: Genetic survey of New Zealand taxa reveals diversity and introduced species
European Journal of Phycology, 2009


Abstract: The genetic diversity of the green algal genus Ulva sensu lato in the New Zealand region was surveyed, examining rbcL sequences of 581 samples from a wide geographical range. Twenty-four genetically distinct taxa were discovered in New Zealand waters, belonging to three genera-Ulva (19 species), Umbraulva (four species) and Gemina (one species). Of the 19 species of Ulva reported here, 13 could be identified to the species level based on morphological and genetic data. The remaining six species cannot currently be assigned to known species groups due to a lack of close homology with sequences in GenBank. These species may include undescribed endemic taxa, recognised taxa for which rbcL sequences are not yet available, or may represent cryptogenic species. The genus Umbraulva is recorded for the first time for the New Zealand region and for the Southern Hemisphere. Of the four species distinguished, one is considered to be introduced to the region and the other three are undescribed indigenous taxa. Subantarctic samples provide the first evidence of the genus Gemina since its description in 1952: sequence data confirmed that Gemina is distinct from Ulva and Umbraulva. A number of the species identified in this study can be distinguished through a combination of growth form, morphological, ecological and distributional characters. However there remain considerable problems in distinguishing a number of other species by morphological characters alone. Based on information such as distribution in New Zealand (percentage of samples occurring in highly modified environments and/or areas with frequent vessel traffic), as well as the genetic similarity of New Zealand samples to material from overseas, we have concluded that at least five species have been introduced to the New Zealand region: Ulva armoricana, U. californica, U. flexuosa, U. lactuca and Umbraulva olivascens. © 2009 British Phycological Society.



Heisler, J.; Gilbert, P.M.; Burkholder, J.M.; Anderson, D.M.; Cochlan, W.P.; Dennison, W.C.; Dortch, Q.; Gobler, C.J.; Heil, C.A.; Humphries, E.; Lewitus, A.; Magnien, R.; Marshall, H.G.; Sellner, K.; Stockwell, D.A.; Stoecker, D.K.; Suddleson, M.
Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus
Harmful Algae, 2008


Abstract: In January 2003, the US Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a ‘‘roundtable discussion’’ to develop a consensus on the relationship between eutrophication and harmful algal blooms (HABs), specifically targeting those relationships for which management actions may be appropriate. Academic, federal, and state agency representatives were in attendance. The following seven statements were unanimously adopted by attendees based on review and analysis of current as well as pertinent previous data:

  1. Degraded water quality from increased nutrient pollution promotes the development and persistence of many HABs and is one of the reasons for their expansion in the U.S. and other nations;
  2. The composition–not just the total quantity–of the nutrient pool impacts HABs;
  3. High-biomass blooms must have exogenous nutrients to be sustained;
  4. Both chronic and episodic nutrient delivery promote HAB development;
  5. Recently developed tools and techniques are already improving the detection of some HABs, and emerging technologies are rapidly advancing toward operational status for the prediction of HABs and their toxins;
  6. Experimental studies are critical to further the understanding about the role of nutrients in HABs expression, and will strengthen prediction and mitigation of HABs; and
  7. Management of nutrient inputs to the watershed can lead to significant reduction in HABs.



Hemminga, M.A.; Duarte, Carlos M.
Seagrass Ecology
Cambridge University Press, 2000


Abstract: Sea grasses occur in coastal zones throughout the world in the areas of marine habitats that are most heavily influenced by humans. Despite a growing awareness of the importance of these plants, a full appreciation of their role in coastal ecosystems has yet to be reached. This book provides an entry point for those wishing to learn about sea grass ecology and provides a broad overview of the present state of knowledge. The volume discusses the recent progress in research and current research foci, complemented by extensive literature references to guide the reader to more detailed studies. This book will be valuable to students of marine biology wishing to specialize in this area and to established researchers wanting to enter the field. In addition, it will provide an excellent reference for those involved in the management and conservation of coastal areas that harbour sea grasses.



Hepi, M; Foote, J; Marino, M; Rogers, M; Taimona, H
"Koe wai hoki koe?!", or "Who are you?!”: Issues of trust in cross-cultural collaborative research
New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 2007


Abstract: Cross-cultural research designs are increasingly employed in the New Zealand context to investigate a range of complex social and environmental issues. However, there is little guidance for researchers who work for mainstream organisations and hapū (subtribe(s)) and iwi (tribe(s)) on how to undertake cross-cultural collaborative research. Trust is a key issue that makes cross-cultural research possible and it is surprising that issues relating to trust have not featured widely in the literature. In this paper, we reflect on our experiences working cross-culturally and collaboratively with a hapū in Northland, New Zealand. We discuss how a mainstream research organisation worked with a community health trust and developed a working relationship with a hapū, forming the basis of a community-driven collaborative evaluation of a central government-funded project. Key findings were the establishment of a tuākana-tēina relationship (where teacher and learner are interchangeable) between the members of the collaborative research team and the employment of appropriate research methods to develop a research agenda that ensured everyone would benefit from the research.



NZ Herald
Updated: Residents stunned as freak hail storm, tornadoes hit BOP
NZ Herald, 2009


Abstract: A violent thunder and hailstorm has brought chaos to the Western Bay of Plenty, with hailstones half the size of golf balls leaving parts of the region whitened. Wattie Newtown says he watched five waterspouts offshore from his home at Town Point. "One about two or three kilometres off the Mount that would have been 500 metres across, it was huge. There was about three touch downs of those, one lasted for probably five to 10 minutes," Mr Newtown said. Mr Newton says the winds that accompanied the spouts were horrendous. He says the hailstorm that followed left the beach looking as though it is coated in snow. The hail was 10 centimetres deep in places. Another resident told the Herald the hail storm hit the beachside suburb of Papamoa around 11:40am, bringing marble size hail stones with "some twice as large". Senior Sergeant Ian Campion says fallen hail is lying about four inches thick in some places. He says driving is also hazardous on State Highway 2, east of Te Maunga, due to surface flooding and hail.



Hewitt, J.; van Houte-Howes, K; Pilditch, C. A.
Does seagrass contribute to marine biodiversity?
NIWA, 2007


Abstract: This article answers a series of questions using recent research: Does sea grass contribute to marine biodiversity? Benthic communities in seagrass are not necessarily more diverse than surrounding non-vegetated areas. Seagrass is still important because it contributes to habitat diversity. A range of habitats provides the necessary variety of ‘services’ – such as food, shelter, and nursery grounds.



Hewitt, J. E.; Pilditch, C. A.
Environmental history and physiological state influence feeding responses of Atrina zelandica to suspended sediment concentrations
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2004


Abstract: Epifaunal suspension-feeding bivalves can play important roles in marine ecosystems affecting macrobenthic communities, benthic boundary layers and benthic-pelagic coupling, not just by their presence but also by any changes in feeding behaviour. While seston quality have consistently been found to be important influences on the feeding rates of suspension-feeding bivalves, factors stressing individuals are also likely to be important, as they may affect energy-dependent thresholds of response. We postulated that (1) history of seston quantity would affect how suspension feeders deal with increases in total suspended particulates, and (2) high-seston concentrations would affect rates more in individuals whose energy reserves were low after spawning. Three sites were selected for short-term (1 day) feeding experiments on the pinnid bivalve, Atrina zelandica. At one site, the experiment was run pre-and – postspawning . Atrina exhibited high rejection of filtered particles (mostly 75% to 100%) and high organic absorption efficiencies (0.9 -1) at all seston levels. Strong differences in the response of feeding behaviour to increased seston concentrations were observed between A. zelandica from different sites, with lesser differences observed between times. The site-specific feeding responses to seston concentrations observed are likely to affect our ability to model responses of A. zelandica to sediment loading and to influence the importance of A. zelandica to benthic-pelagic coupling.



Hickman, R.W,
Mahanga Bay (Wellington): The Life History of an Aquaculture Research Centre
NIWA, 2009


Abstract: Mahanga Bay (Wellington): The Life History of an Aquaculture Research Centre. This report documents the history of the Mahanga Bay aquaculture research centre. It covers everything from its initial conception and operation, different species researched over time and improving technologies, to staff who have worked there and collaborations with other NIWA centres.



Hill, G.; Payne, V.; Heerdegen, R.
Applications for two coastal permits by Ports of Tauranga Limited
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2010


Abstract: Applications for two coastal permits by Ports of Tauranga Limited to dredge the main shipping channels in the Tauranga Harbour (Te Awanui) (up to 15 million cubic metres); depositing that material at identified sites within the coastal marine area; and also removing dredged material from the coastal marine area (up to 10 million cubic metres).



Hilton, M.; Macauley, U.; Henderson, R.
Inventory of New Zealand's Active Dunelands
Department of Conservation, 2000


Abstract: An inventory of active dunelands in New Zealand, those dunelands that owe their physical, landscape and ecological character to the ongoing or very recent movement of sand by wind, is presented. Maps of active dunelands for the 1950s, 1970s and 1980s for each region were derived from published topographic maps and other historic sources. Maps showing the extent of active duneland in the 1990s were derived from the most recent aerial photographs held by local authorities. The boundaries of active dunelands were digitised at the map or photo scale and stored as a geographic information system database using ARC-INFO software. ARC-INFO was used to calculate the area of each active duneland, sum the areas of active duneland in each region and produce A4 format maps of active duneland cover in the 1950s, 1970s, 1980s. and 1990s for each region and for subdivisions of each region. Maps were circulated to Department of Conservation and local authority offices and corrections made where necessary.



Hitchmough, R.; Bull, L.; Cromarty, P.
New Zealand Threat Classification System Lists – 2005
Department of Conservation, 2007


Abstract: New Zealnd's threatened and potentially threatened species of animals (marine mammals, bats, birds, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater and marine fish, and terrestrial, freshwater and marine invertebrates) and non-vascular plants (bryophytes and macroalgae) were assessed or reassessed for risk of extinction using the New Zealand Threat Classification System. Lists of threatened vascular plants were taken from previous publication. Threatened fungi were not reassessed. The number of species listed as threatened increased from 2372 to 2788, and the number listed as Data Deficient increased from 2047 to 3031. These changes were mostly as a result of improved knowledge and the assesssment of species that had not been considered previously, but a small number of species changed category as a result of genuinely improved or deteriorated status. Each of these changes is discussed, and complete lists of threatened and Data Deficient species are provided.



Hoanh, C.T., (Edited by); Tuong, T.P., (Edited by); Gowing, J.W., (Edited by); Hardy, B., (Edited by),
Environment and livelihoods in tropical coastal zones: managing agriculture-fishery-aquaculture conflicts
CABI Publishing, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and the International Water Management Institute (IWWI), 2006


Abstract: The focus of the book is around the challenges people face in managing crops, aquaculture, fisheries and related ecosystems in inland areas of coastal zones in the tropics. A priority issue that emerges from the case studies presented here is the impact of change on poor people whose livelihoods depend upon open-access resources. Any development decision that aims at enhancing production from aquaculture and/or agriculture is likely to adversely affect access to and the productivity of these resources. Conflicts arise between different stakeholders and in this book we discuss the nature of these conflicts and identify what is known and not known about how to manage them. The book will therefore help planners, resource managers and donors to make better-informed investment decisions in connection with development of the coastal zone. The chapters in this book were selected from papers presented at the International Conference on Environment and Livelihoods in Coastal Zones: Managing Agriculture–Fishery–Aquaculture Conflicts, organized in Bac Lieu, Vietnam, on 1–3 March 2005.



Hong, S. H.; Yim, U. H.; Shim, W. J.; Oh, J. R.; Viet, P. H.; Park, P. S.
Persistent organochlorine residues in estuarine and marine sediments from Ha Long Bay, Hai Phong Bay, and Ba Lat Estuary, Vietnam
Chemosphere Journal, 2008


Abstract: To assess the organochlorine contamination in the northeast coastal environment of Vietnam, a total of 41 surface sediments were collected from Ha Long Bay, Hai Phong Bay, and Ba Lat estuary, and analyzed for their organochlorine content. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were widely distributed in the Vietnamese coastal environment. Among the OCs measured, DDT compounds predominated with concentrations ranging from 0.31 to 274 ng g(-1). The overall contamination level of DDTs in coastal sediments from northern Vietnam is comparable with those from other Asian countries. However, concentrations exceeding 100 ng g-1 are comparable with high concentrations reported from India and China, the largest DDT consumers in the world. The overall concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, and chlordanes in surface sediments were in the ranges of 0.04-18.71 ng g-', not detected (n.d.) - 1.00 ng g-1, and n.d. - 0.75 ng g-', respectively. Ha Long Bay and Hai Phong Bay were relatively more contaminated with DDTs and PCBs than other regions, respectively. In contrast, the distribution of HCHs was relatively homogeneous. OCs contamination in the coastal environment of Vietnam is closely related to shipping and industrial activities. The levels of DDT compounds in harbors and industrial areas exceeded their sediment quality guideline values suggested by Environment Canada [CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment), 2002. Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. In: Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, MBI and Australian and New Zealand JANZECC and ARMCANZ, 2000. National water quality management strategy. Paper No. 4, Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality, vol. 1, The Guidelines. Australia. Document:, indicating that adverse effects may occur to marine species in that areas. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



Howard-Williams, C.; Pickmere, S
Nutrient and Vegetation Changes in a Retired Pasture Stream
Department of Conservation, 1999


Abstract: This report records water quality and vegetation changes in the Whangamata Stream, Lake Taupo catchment from 1995 to 1998. The data represent the latest three years of a 24-year study on changes to this pasture stream since riparian strips were established in 1976, to retire the margins of the stream from pastoral farming. This data set is unique in New Zealand for its continuity and allows a quantitative assessment of the extent and time scales of change in rehabilitation programmes of this nature. The process of rehabilitation of the stream was assisted by some plantings of native species among the pasture-grassed banks. During this three-year study period, the number of vascular plant species recorded in the stream and along the banks has increased from 119 to 148. Native plants made up 41% of the total. Woody species are invading the flax-dominated stream banks. The reaches of the stream which had the original plantings (c. 1976) have the highest number of species. The old pasture has proved very resistant to invasion and in many areas where assisted plantings have not occurred, extensive areas of rank grass comprising the original pasture species are still intact. The ability of the stream bank and channel flora to remove nutrients from the stream has been reduced over this three-year monitoring period, with nitrate and dissolved reactive phosphorus uptake in mid-summer now less than 15% of the mass flow of these nutrients. This compares with c. 90% removal in the mid-1980s. Total suspended solids show a strongly seasonal pattern with values increasing in winter and decreasing to low values (<5 g m–3) in summer. A similar pattern was recorded in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The winter maximum TSS concentration in 1996 was very high (c. 70 g m–3) coinciding with the Ruapehu eruption which blanketed much of the catchment in ash. The stream channel was essentially clear of the plant blockages which were a feature of the 1980s and early 1990s. The water flowed unimpeded below a dense cover of flax and toetoe, allowing easy access for spawning trout to the upper reaches of the stream. Fernbird, fantails, bellbird, pukeko were observed. The stream is now an increasingly important wildlife area. The role of the protected riparian strips has therefore changed over the years from a sediment and nutrient trapping mechanism to sediment control, with greatly enhanced wildlife values.



Howells, R.
Management of the Esplanade Reserve Alongside the Kopurererua Stream, Tauranga
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic Report no. 19, 1995


Abstract: There are a number of problems associated with the Kopurererua Stream. The main one is inadequate management of the esplanade reserve adjacent to the stream which has lead to the loss of natural values; deterioration of water quality and the problem of industrial encroachment. The stream has been dramatically modified over the years from its natural state which has as a result contributed to the above problems. Degraded water quality of the Kopurererua Stream is mainly caused by runoff from both urban and pastoral areas. As a result the stream has high nitrogen, phosphorus and suspended solid loads. This not only affects the stream but also the Waikareao Estuary which is an important food source for the Maori of the area. The vegetation of the stream banks lacks diversity due to invasive plants. The remainder of the stream bank vegetation is being affected by industrial encroachment which has lead to some areas being quite bare. The answer to this problem is riparian zone management. Which can help to enhance the area. The Kopurererua Stream has the potential to be a real asset as a amenity resource. The stream could also act as a good link to already existing amenities of the area.



Howells, R.; Lovell, D.
An Assessment of Potential Whitebait Spawning Grounds in the Kopurererua, Waimapu and Waitao Streams, Tauranga
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic Report no. 21, 1994


Abstract: This report consists of locating the probable spawning grounds for whitebait in three streams in the Tauranga area, the Kopurererua, Waimapu and Waitao streams and investigating ways in which these spawning areas can be enhanced. The saltwater wedge was identified for each stream and bank conditions in that area were evaluated. We found the Kopurererua stream to be very undesirable as a whitebait spawning ground due to the encroachment onto the Esplanade Reserve by the adjacent properties. The Waimapu is more suited as a whitebait spawning ground and is well protected by surrounding reserves. There is, however, a problem with adjacent land owners modifying the bank system in a stretch of the saltwater zone. The saltwater wedge zone of the Waitao stream has been grazed to the water’s edge on the true right bank. This has left bare patches and poor vegetation. The true left bank is in better condition with only a small amount of blackberry to be removed. Recommendations for the immediate future of the streams have been made. These centre largely around the clearing of undesirable plant species from the banks in the areas of the saltwater wedge and replacing them with more suitable species.


 Hughes, B.N.
Draft Ohiwa Harbour and Catchment scoping report
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2002
Abstract: This is the Draft Ohiwa Harbour and Catchment Scoping Report prepared for the Strategic Policy Committee of the Bay of Plenty Regional Council (Environment B·O·P). The Scoping Report is designed to help Environment B·O·P decide whether to proceed to fund the development of an integrated management strategy for the Ohiwa Harbour and its catchment. This Scoping Report is based on research of reports prepared for Environment B·O·P and other stakeholder organisations. An intensive consultative process involving statutory and iwi and hapu stakeholder group’s was undertaken prior to the preparation of this report. In all cases staff and elected representatives of each organisation indicated their willingness to participate in the Scoping Report process and any subsequent strategy that might arise out of it. For this reason it is recommended that further consultation should follow this report, regardless of the outcome. Planning terms such as ‘integrated management’ and ‘strategy’ are explained in the report and identify the focus of the Scoping Report. The report recognises that integrated management is a goal and that arriving at integrated management requires communication which is, in itself, a strategic device that has potential to benefit all stakeholder participants. Developing a strategy that focuses on integrated management offers management agencies the potential to:
  • Reduce duplication of services and spending,
  • Provide greater clarity and certainty about roles and responsibilities,
  • Design processes to help resource consent applicants plan application timelines,
  • Enhance relationships between stakeholder groups, including the community,
  • Provide opportunities for stakeholder groups to participate in activities aimed at achieving a common vision, while sustainably managing resources that are being appropriately used and developed.
This report asserts that such objectives are best met when stakeholder groups come together to strategise how they might integrate their resource management with other stakeholders.

 Hughy, K.F.D.; Kerr, G.N.; Cullen, R.; Cook, A.J.
Perceptions of conservation and the Department of Conservation: interim fidings from the 2008 Environmental Perceptions Survey. Land Environment and Peoeple research report; no. 1
Lincoln University, Environment Society and Design Division, 2008
Abstract: A conservation case study was included as a component of the 2008 biennial environmental perceptions survey. The survey drew on a random sample of 2000 people aged 18 and over from the electoral roll, and achieved an effective response rate of 40%. The conservation case study had five major themes. First, the study of national park visitation rates indicated that 44% of respondents made at least one visit to a national park in 2007. Second, the Natural Areas Value Scores enabled a clustering of respondents into five groups – these value groups are directly comparable to similar research from Australia, and comparable to more recent New Zealand research. The value group clusters were used to further analyse responses to other conservation questions. Third, respondents recognise a wide range of meanings for the term ‘conservation’ and conservation is very important to them as individuals. Given the above it should not be surprising that respondents, fourthly, were very supportive of additional government expenditure for conservation. Finally, it was surprisingly how low the rates of awareness are of how DoC’s activities contribute to a range of ecosystem services. But, even given this response there is very high overall support for the importance of the work done by DoC, with over half the respondents considering the Department’s performance to be ‘good’ or ‘very good’. The patterns of responses and overall conclusions are similar to those that were drawn from a similar phone-based survey in 2007. Overall, therefore, this postal survey has proven to be both cost-effective and timely in terms of providing the sorts of information required by DoC. Ongoing biennial surveys of this sort would allow the Department to monitor people’s perceptions of its performance and related issues over time.

 Hull, P. J.
The ecology of bivalves on Centre Bank, Tauranga Harbour
University of Waikato, 1996
Abstract: An investigation into the ecology of bivalve molluscs on Centre Bank, the flood tidal delta of Tauranga Harbour was undertaken over the period December 1994 – March 1996. The primary purpose of which was to get gather quantitative data on bivalve diversity, spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and population size structure of bivalves present on Centre Bank. Experiments were conducted to assess the burrowing behaviour of the bivalve Paphies australis. It was intended that information into changes in the ecology of Centre Bank.

 Hume, T.; Blackett, P.; Dahm, J.
Finding safe harbour involving communities in coastal hazard mitigation
Water & Atmosphere, 2007
Abstract: Does involving local people in reducing coastal hazards lead to better environmental outcomes? Terry Hume, Paula Blackett, and Jim Dahm surveyed seven community groups to find out. Community groups are playing a growing role in coastal hazards mitigation as policy agencies increasingly focus on community participation, inclusion, and consultation, and put more emphasis on voluntary environmental actions. This community involvement is thought to have many benefits: it can improve the quality of decisions and overall environmental results, build community relationships, and increase local capacity to understand and manage environmental issues. At the same time, there has been a shift away from hard engineering and a 'humans against nature' approach, and increased emphasis on managing humans rather than nature.

 Hume, T.; Swales, A.
How estuaries grow old
Water & Atmosphere, 2003
Abstract: Have you ever wondered how estuaries have formed and if they will eventually fill up with sediment and die? Estuaries in New Zealand have not always looked like they do today. These semi-enclosed coastal water bodies, where land drainage mixes with the sea, began life about 6500 years ago, when climatic warming caused sea level to rise some 150 m to its present level. The sea level rise drowned an ancient and varied landscape. So, in the Auckland region, the seabed of present-day Hauraki Gulf was once a broad alluvial plain with meandering river channels incised into it and the coast was out beyond Great Barrier Island. In south-west New Zealand, the landscape was dominated by deep U-shaped valleys cut by glaciers. The “proto-estuaries” that formed as sea-level rose were very different from those we see today because since that time they have filled with sediment and grown old.

 Hume, Terry M.; Bell, Robert G.; de Lange, Willem P.; Healy, Terry R.; Hicks, D. Murray; Kirk, R. M.
Coastal oceanography and sedimentology in New Zealand, 1967-91
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1992
Abstract: This paper reviews research that has taken place on physical oceanography and sedimentology on New Zealand's estuaries and the inner shelf since c. 1967. It includes estuarine sedimentation, tidal inlets, beach morphodynamics, nearshore and inner shelf sedimentation, tides and coastal currents, numerical modelling, short-period waves, tsunamis, and storm surges. An extensive reference list covering both published and unpublished material is included. Formal teaching and research programmes dealing with coastal landforms and the processes that shape them were only introduced to New Zealand universities in 1964; the history of the New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research parallels and chronicles the development of physical coastal science in New Zealand, most of which has been accomplished in last 25 years.

 Hume, T. M.; Green, M. O.; Elliott, S.
Tauranga Harbour Sediment Study: Assessment of predictions for management
NIWA, 2009
Abstract: Technical Report F1 provides a summary of the previous technical reports from the NIWA Tauranga Harbour Sediment Study. In addition, Technical Report F1 provides a model of how the harbour works to address how changes in sediment runoff from the catchment translate into changes in sedimentation in the harbour. Sediment-transport patterns emerged in that subestuaries deposit sediment from more than the adjacent subcatchment as sediment mixing occurs in the estuary. Under current land use and climate scenarios, about 42% of the net sediment runoff from the subcatchments is lost to the ocean. The report then addresses three questions: (1) Which catchments are more important as priority areas for focusing resources to reduce sedimentation in the harbour? (2) What are the likely effects of existing and future urban development on the harbour? (3) How can the appropriate regulatory agencies (EBOP, WBPDC and TCC) most effectively address sedimentation issues, and what management intervention could be appropriate? (4) Are there any reversal methods, such as mangrove control and channel dredging that may be effective in managing sedimentation?

(1) The sediment load to the estuary generally increases with the size of the catchment; subsequently 42.4% of the sediment enters the southern harbour from the Wairau subcatchment.
(2) Urbanisation is predicted to lower the sediment load to the harbour slightly by the year 2051 as urban land use has lower rates of sediment run off than pasture. Other land use changes were not assessed. The controls on earth works were predicted to reduce the sediment load contributed by these activities substantially.
(3) Strategies for intervention include: retiring steep pasture land to established plantations; enhancing the potential for sediment to be deposited on floodplains within the catchment in particular for Waitao and Waimapu subcatchments; riparian planting; improved forestry controls; and to maintain and enhance the existing controls on earth works.
(4) Mitigation of sediment runoff as a preventive measure for managing sedimentation is preferred over reactive dredging and mangrove removal.

 Hume, T. M.; Herdendorf, C. E.
Factors controlling tidal inlet characteristics on low drift coasts
Journal of Coastal Research, 1992
Abstract: New Zealand's northeast coast is characterised by low littoral drift and the numerous barrier enclosed estuaries along the shore present an excellent opportunity to examine tidal inlet processes under low littoral drift conditions. The estuaries range in area from c.l to 98 km2, are micro-mesotidal and have tidal prisms ranging from c.0.8 x 106 to 155 x 106 m3. Tidal inlets mostly occur where Holocene sand barriers have built out towards rock headlands. The inlets generally have positional stability as a result of shelter from wave energy in the lee of rock headlands, however, morphological instability is common and temporal. Ebb tidal delta planform is controlled by the tidal discharge, degree of headland shelter and littoral supply. In situations where a rock headland provides shelter from waves, the ebb tidal delta comprises an elongate or triangular swash platform built normal to the shore in the lee of the headland. Where there is little headland shelter and the littoral drift is very low, the ebb tidal delta is poorly developed and comprises an extension of the beach bar system across the mouth of the inlet. In comparison where there is little headland shelter but the littoral drift and tidal prism are greater, a large and more classical shaped ebb tidal delta bulges out from the coast. In general the inlets can be considered as geometrically stable (i.e. have the ability to return to their initial configuration after a disturbance) because: (1) the generally low width to depth ratio (average 44) indicates that the inlet throat channels are hydraulically efficient, (2) the strong relationship between throat area and tidal prism/discharge indicates that there is a balance between inlet geometry and tidal flow through the gorge, (3) of the similarity of their throat area/tidal prism relationships and width/depth ratios to those inlets stabilized with 2 jetties on the Pacific and particularly the Atlantic coast of the USA, and (4) the high tidal prism/ littoral drift (Ω/$M_tot$) ratios indicate that entrance conditions are good and that the tidal current is the main mechanism for transporting sediment through the entrance. The rock headlands at the northeast coast inlets appear to act in a similar manner to jetties in directing the ebb tide jet and so forcing tidal dominance of sediment transport, creating an efficient throat profile and a geometrically stable entrance.

 Hume, T. M.; Herdendorf, C. E.
On the use of empirical stability relationships for characterising estuaries
Journal of Coastal Research, 1993
Abstract: Data from New Zealand and overseas studies are used to support the hypothesis that area-prism (A-Q) relationships, like those used to characterise the entrance throat stability of barrier enclosed tidal inlets on exposed sandy coasts, hold for a wide variety of estuary types ranging from lagoon to river mouth situations to large coastal embayments. The relationships indicate that both the bay size and the amount of littoral drift are important in determining the geometry of estuary mouths. The empirical relationships can be used to characterise and classify estuaries.

 Hydraulics Research Station
Tauranga Harbour Investigation. Report on first stage
Hydraulics Research Station, 1963
Abstract: Until 1940 the needs of the community surrounding the Bay of Plenty were adequately served by the 330-ft long Railway Wharf at Tauranga. During the years that followed, the development of the timber industry, based on the products of the forests in the Rotorua area, necessitated the construction of further dock facilities. In 1949 the Ministry of Works gave their support to plans to provide wharfage at Maunganui in preference to the alternative proposition for development at Whakatane, some 50 miles to the south-east. It was considered that the Maunganui site would best serve the needs, not only of the pulp and paper industry to be established somewhere between Tauranga and Whakatane, but also of the whole Bay of Plenty. In addition it was felt that, provide entrance depths could be improved to allow passage at high water vessels drawing at least 30ft, then trade in the primary products of meat and butter could be developed.

Hydraulics Research Station
Tauranga Harbour Investigation: Report on the second stage
Hydraulics Research Station, 1968
Abstract: In May, 1959 the Hydraulics Research Station, Wallingford, England was asked by the Tauranga Harbour Board to make a study of the hydraulic conditions obtaining in Tauranga harbour and to examine by means of a scale model the relative merits of various schemes proposed for the future development of the port’s facilities. The 2 major problems confronting the Harbour Board were: 1. How to improve and maintain depths in the entrance to the harbour and in the Maunganui Channel so that ships drawing at least 30ft would be able to navigate as far as the Maunganui wharves at high water, and 2. How to plan future port development, particularly with regard to the provision of additional wharfage, so that existing assets would in no way be jeopardized.


IAWPRC Study Group on Water Virology
The Health Significance of Viruses in Water
Water Research, 1983

Abstract: There is no question that water may transmit pathogenic viruses. In fact, epidemiological data on the incidence of water-borne viral diseases probably fail to reflect the true extent of the hazard. However, it is equally clear that the technology to produce virologically safe water is available, but often not applied. Viral infections could always be traced to inefficient treatment, break-down of equipment, or secondary pollution in distribution systems. In addition, the efficiency of treatment processes can reliably be assessed by means of microbiological indicator systems. This information should now be used in research on the improvement of water treatment and surveillance systems in terms of cost, efficiency and reliability in order to ensure more safe water for more people throughout the world. The role of water in the overall incidence of microbial diseases and the optimum utilization of financial resources for the benefit of public health in general should be a major consideration in these endeavours. Monitoring procedures must include operational and chemical control as well as practical microbiological assays to detect treatment deficiencies. It should be possible to perform the microbiological tests economically at high frequency in conventional laboratories, and reliable results should be available in a short time. Evidence has been presented that presently available virological tests, which do not meet these requirements, may be eliminated from routine monitoring. However, the optimization of water treatment and surveillance for the many different uses and users of water, requires more information on the incidence and behaviour of viruses in water, the relation of pathogenic viruses to indicators, the virucidal efficiency and mechanism of action of treatment processes, and the epidemiology of waterborne viral diseases. Success in these efforts will heavily depend upon a multi-disciplinary approach and close co-operation among fields of expertise such as engineering, microbiology, chemistry, public health, epidemiology, economics, statistics and education.



Inglis, G
The seagrasses of New Zealand
University of California Press, 2003

Abstract: Looks at the distribution of sea grass throughout New Zealand (Aotearoa). Includes the sea grass status of many NZ harbours including Tauranga. Also covers the threats and management of sea grasses in NZ. There also mentions a sea grass 'limpet' that specialises in sea grass. However, no research exists on this endemic species.



Inglis, G.; Gust, N.; Fitridge, I.; Floerl, O.; Woods, C.; Hayden, B.; Fenwick, G
Port of Tauranga: Baseline survey for non-idigenous marine species
Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry and Biosecurity New Zealand, 2006


Abstract: This report describes the results of a March 2002 survey to provide a baseline inventory of native, non-indigenous and cryptogenic marine species within the Port of Tauranga. The survey is part of a nationwide investigation of native and non-native marine biodiversity in 13 international shipping ports and three marinas of first entry for yachts entering New Zealand from overseas. Sampling methods used in these surveys were based on protocols developed by the Australian Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests (CRIMP) for baseline surveys of non-indigenous species in ports. Modifications were made to the CRIMP protocols for use in New Zealand port conditions. A wide range of sampling techniques was used to collect marine organisms from a range of habitats within the Port of Tauranga. Fouling assemblages were scraped from hard substrata by divers, benthic assemblages were sampled using a sled and benthic grabs, and a gravity corer was used to sample for dinoflagellate cysts. Mobile predators and scavengers were sampled using baited fish, crab, starfish and shrimp traps.



Inglis, G.; Gust, N.; Fitridge, I.; Floerl, O.; Woods, C.; Kospartov, M.; Hayden, B.; Fenwick, G
Port of Tauranga: Second Baseline Survey for Non-Indigenous Marine Species
NIWA, 2008

Abstract: This report describes the results of a repeat port baseline survey of the Port of Tauranga undertaken in April 2005. The survey provides a second inventory of native, non indigenous and cryptogenic marine species within the port and compares the biota with the results of an earlier port baseline survey of the Port of Tauranga undertaken in March 2002. The survey is part of a nationwide investigation of native and non-native marine biodiversity in 13 international shipping ports and three marinas of first entry for yachts entering New Zealand from overseas. To allow a direct comparison between the initial baseline survey and the resurvey of the Port of Tauranga, the survey used the same methodologies, occurred in the same season, and sampled the same sites used in the initial baseline survey. To improve the description of the biota of the port, some additional survey sites were added during the repeat survey. Sampling methods used in both surveys were based on protocols developed by the Australian Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests (CRIMP) for baseline surveys of non-indigenous species (NIS) in ports. Modifications were made to the CRIMP protocols for use in New Zealand port conditions. These are described in more detail in the body of the report. A wide range of sampling techniques was used to collect marine organisms from habitats within the Port of Tauranga. Fouling assemblages were scraped from hard substrata by divers, benthic assemblages were sampled using a sled and benthic grabs, and a gravity corer was used to sample for dinoflagellate cysts. Mobile predators and scavengers were sampled using baited fish, crab, starfish and shrimp traps. Sampling effort was distributed in the Port of Tauranga according to priorities identified in the CRIMP protocols, which are designed to maximise the chances of detecting on indigenous species. Most effort was concentrated on high-risk locations and habitats where non-indigenous species were most likely to be found. Organisms collected during the survey were sent to local and international taxonomic experts for identification. A total of 304 species or higher taxa were identified in the first survey of the Port of Tauranga in March 2002. They consisted of 202 native species, 10 non-indigenous species, 51 cryptogenic species (those whose geographic origins are uncertain) and 41 species indeterminata (taxa for which there is insufficient taxonomic or systematic information available to allow identification to species level). During the repeat survey, 264 species or higher taxa were recorded, including 177 native species, 9 non-indigenous species, 43 cryptogenic species and 35 species indeterminata. Many species were common to both surveys. Around 41% the native species, 44% of non-indigenous species, and 50% of cryptogenic species recorded during the repeat survey were also found in the earlier survey. The 9 non-indigenous organisms found in the repeat survey of the Port of Tauranga included representatives of 3 major taxonomic groups. The non-indigenous species detected were: Bugula flabellata, Bugula neritina, Electra tenella, Watersipora subtorquata, Amathia distans, Zoobotryon verticillatum (Bryozoa); Monotheca pulchella, Sertularia marginata (Cnidaria); Cliona celata (Porifera). Five of these species – Electra tenella, Amathia distans, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Monotheca pulchella, Sertularia marginata – were not recorded in the earlier baseline survey of the Port of Tauranga. In addition, 5 non-indigenous species that were present in the first survey – Polydora hoplura, Clytia ?linearis, Eudendrium capillare, Apocorophium acutum, Monocorophium acherusicum – were not found during the repeat survey. Twenty three species recorded in the repeat survey had not previously been described from New Zealand waters. This included 19 species of sponge that not correspond with existing descriptions from New Zealand or overseas and may be new to science. None of the species recorded from the Port of Tauranga is on the New Zealand register of unwanted organisms. Most non-indigenous species located in the Port are likely to have been introduced to New Zealand accidentally by international shipping or spread from other locations in New Zealand (including translocation by shipping). Approximately 44 % (4 of 9 species) of NIS in the Port of Tauranga are likely to have been introduced in hull fouling assemblages, 44 % (4 species) by hull fouling or ballast water , and 1 species (12 %) via fouling on flotsam vectors. The predominance of hull fouling species in the introduced biota of the Port of Tauranga (as opposed to ballast water introductions) is consistent with findings from similar port baseline studies overseas.



Climate Change 2007 - Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Cambridge University Press, 2007

Abstract: Climate change 2007 - Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of the impacts of climate change, the vulnerability of natural and human environments, and the potential for response through adaptation. The report:

  • evaluates evidence that recent observed changes in climate have already affected a variety of physical and biological systems and concludes that these effects can be contributed to global warming;
  • makes a detailed assessment of the impacts of future climate change and sea-level rise on ecosystems, water resources, agriculture and food security, human health, coastal and low-lying regions and industry and settlements;
  • provides a complete new assessment of the impacts of climate change on major regions of the world (Africa, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, Europe, Latin America, North America, polar regions and small islands);
  • considers responses through adaptation;
  • explores the synergies and trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation;
  • evaluates the key vulnerabilities to climate change, and assesses aggregate damage levels and the role of multiple stresses.



Iremonger, S.
NERMN Beach Profile Monitoring
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2007


Abstract: This is the second report detailing the results of the coastal monitoring network initiated by Environment Bay of Plenty in 1990 as part of its Natural Environment Regional Monitoring Network (NERMN) programme. A total of 53 sites are profiled on an annual basis within the current coastal monitoring programme. Some selected sites are monitored quarterly; others are monitored as necessary, i.e. after storm events or where a beach is considered to be of significant concern to the public due to impacts on private property. Over the course of a year along the Bay of Plenty coastline, changes in the beach morphology result from “cut and fill” processes. The movement of sediment from this process is dependent on wind and wave action as well as sediment properties. These seasonal changes are superimposed on short and long term processes which act to produce periods (tens of years) of erosion, accretion and dynamic equilibrium. Wave action is the dominant forcing process causing changes in erosion and accretion patterns along the Bay of Plenty coastline. Wave conditions in the Bay of Plenty are moderately influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation. More stormy conditions than average tend to occur during La Niña periods, which are associated with an increase in north-easterlies in the New Zealand region. During El Niño years, where a higher occurrence of south-westerlies occurs, wave conditions in the Bay of Plenty are somewhat reduced although episodic extra-tropical cyclones still occur. Given that since 1998 we have entered a negative phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation where neutral or La Niña conditions may be more likely to occur, it is possible that the Bay of Plenty region may experience increased rates of erosion over the next 20 to 30 years, similar to that experienced in the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s (Bell et. al., 2006). Over the period of the physical coastal NERMN (typically 16 years of data to date), 53 sites have been monitored to access changes in beach profile position and beach volume. The overall beach state (Table 1) generally shows common patterns per reported beach system. This is not unexpected as typically these beach systems are affected by sources of localised sediment influx from fluvial sources or are separated by a number of natural obstructions, such as:

  • hard-rock coastline north of Waihi Beach
  • northern Tauranga Harbour entrance
  • southern Tauranga Harbour entrance
  • Mount Maunganui
  • Town Point, Maketu
  • Kohi Point headland, Whakatane
  • Ohiwa Harbour entrance

These features punctuate the general direction of littoral drift in the Bay of Plenty of north-west to south east flux, though there are areas where the direction of net sediment movement has been modelled to be orientated towards the north west (Bell et. al., 2006; Phizacklea 1993). Littoral drift is the main mechanism by which sediment is supplied to a beach; it is also a value that is difficult to measure directly. Results from this report show that the following beaches are showing trends of erosion for the period 1990-2006:

  • Ohope Beach
  • Pukehina Beach
  • Southern area of Waihi Beach
  • Central section of Hikuwai Beach

A continuation of this NERMN is important in the management regime of this coastal area. There are increasing pressures (development and recreational) in this coastal environment. The profile monitoring provides a baseline dataset for determining the physical state of these beach systems. Additional increasing pressures such as sea level rise further enforce the requirement for this monitoring to continue. A future monitoring schedule has been outlined in Chapter 6 of this report which will allow for timely and representative information to be collected and analysed.



Irvine, E.
Stingray-hunting orca close to shore
Bay of Plenty Times, 2010

Abstract: Four orca whales got up close and personal with local kayaker Tim Taylor.



Isaksson, I.; Pihl, L.; van Montfrans, J.
Eutrophication-related changes in macrovegetation and foraging of young cod (Gadus morhua L.): a mesocosm experiment
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 1994

Abstract: Predation by 1-year-old cod (Gadus morhua) on three decapod crustacean prey (Crangon crangon, Caninus maenas and Palaemon adspersus) was examined in outdoor flow-through mesocosms. Experimental treatments included varying percent cover (70-80; 30-40 and 0 or 10%, respectively) of filamentous algae (Enteromorpha prolifera, E. intestinalis or Cladophora spp.) on bare sand and on patches of Zostera marina. Foraging efficiency of cod on Crangon crangon and Carcinus maenas was geatest in unvegetated treatments. Survival of Crangon crangon and Carcinus maenas was significantly enhanced by the addition of moderate (30-40%) levels of filamentous algal cover to sand substrates, while further increased habitat complexity (70-80% cover) didn't significantly increase the survival of these two species. This suggests a threshold effect in the influence of habitat structure where only small changes in macrovegetation are needed to dramatically decrease foraging efficiency of cod on Crangon crangon and Carcinus maenas. In contrast, no significant difference in predation-induced mortality of P. adspersus was observed between experimental treatments, indicating that P. adspersus is equally susceptible to predation in all habitat types tested. Our studies emphasize the potential effects of habitat alteration from barren sandy embayments providing optimal foraging areas for cod, to progressively more algal-covered habitats in which cod are less successful foragers. During the past decade, shallow coastal areas along the Swedish west coast have been subjected to increasing eutrophication and a general proliferation of filamentous algae. By affecting predator-prey relationships, eutrophication-related structural changes in macrovegetation might cause considerable alterations in trophic relationships in shallow coastal waters.



Jacobson, C.; Stephens, A.
Cross-cultural approaches to environmental research and management: a response to the dualisms inherent in Western science?
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 2009


Abstract: This forum attempts to deepen the reflection and discussion on the linkages between indigenous and non-indigenous research and how they need to embrace and learn from one another. Also, the need for science to genuinely embrace and respect local knowledge by considering the value of the different epistemologies.



James, B.
Understanding the conservation expectations of Aucklanders
Department of Conservation New Zealand, 2001


Abstract: This report contributes to the development of a community relations strategy for the Auckland Conservancy of the Department of Conservation (DOC). Information was collected from nine focus groups: four of DOC stakeholders (agencies, iwi, NGOs, and supporters) and five general public groups (older people, young people, parents, urban Maori and Pacific peoples). It presents results on people’s identification of conservation issues facing Auckland, their awareness and view of DOC and involvement in conservation. Conservation issues were identified in four main areas: pollution, urban sustainability, parks and reserves, and threatened species and habitats. Factors inhibiting conservation outcomes were also identified. The views expressed about DOC were generally positive of neutral. The general public focus groups knowledge of DOC’s role. All groups identified education information dissemination key DOC roles. Participants were involved in a range of conservation activities. They stressed personal, social and cultural motivations, not simply desired environmental outcomes, as reasons for involvement in conservation. The community relations strategy needs to address: DOC’s low profile, Aucklanders’ conservation concerns, conservation education and information, clarification of DOC’s role, consultation and communication, and community involvement. The results of this Auckland study raise wider issues for DOC’s community relations.



James, P.
Sea Urchin Opportunities and Lessons
VIP Publications Ltd, 2010


Abstract: What has no brain, thousands of feet and could be the basis of a multi-million dollar aquaculture industry in New Zealand? If you guessed sea urchins you answered correctly. The value of high quality sea urchin roe, together with increasing demand in Asia and Europe, has caused overfishing of many sea urchin populations around the world. Subsequently, wild catches have steadily decreased and there has been increasing interest in the aquaculture of a range of sea urchin species. There are two approaches to sea urchin aquaculture. The first is roe enhancement. This involves catching mature wild animals, holding and feeding them in either land or sea-based systems for a limited period of normally 10 to 12 weeks and increasing the quantity and quality of the roe. The second option is closed-cycle culture, which involves conditioning and spawning broodstock, fertilisation and hatching eggs, rearing the larvae through to settlement and on-growing juveniles through to market-size animals. The latter is the basis for most finfish and invertebrate (such as paua) aquaculture. In New Zealand there has been a substantial amount of research into roe enhancement of wild-caught sea urchins, or kina (Evechinus chloroticus) over the past 10 years (see NZ Aquaculture, issue 05, 2005) with the primary aim being to utilise kina found in barrens (areas with very high density of kina and little or no food) around New Zealand. These kina are normally easy to find and harvest but have a very small amount of poor quality roe and are not of any economic value unless they are enhanced.



Jervis, K.; Davies, K.
Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor) on Mauao
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic Report no. 101, 2000

Abstract: This project investigates the Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor) population on Mauao, Mt Maunganui, in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. It is a project which is ongoing in nature and the preliminary findings are shown here. Twenty-eight artificial nesting boxes were installed on Mauao to enhance the nesting habitat of the Little Blue Penguin population. To date these artificial nesting sites have not been utilised. It is expected that further weathering of the nesting boxes will make them more attractive to the penguins. Tagging training was undertaken with Roderick Cossee (DOC Manager National Banding Scheme). Fifty-two penguins have so far been tagged and tagging will continue over the following years. A total of 18 burrows have so far been located within the study area. There are many more particularly to the north of the study area, although their numbers has not been determined. At the time this report was compiled no chicks were present, although some adults were incubating eggs. Two dead birds were found during tagging excursions but did not show signs of predation and appeared to have died of natural causes. One cat, two rats and a mustelid were observed in the study area.



Jervis, K.; Davies, K.
A Research Project Investigating Eudyptula minor on Mauao
Bay of Plenty Polytechnic Report no. 121, 2001

Abstract: The aim of this research was to investigate the Eudyptula minor population on Mauao (Mt Maunganui). The research objectives were; to band all Eudyptula minor encountered on Mauao; to take and record morphometric measurements in an effort to determine any differences between sexes in Eudyptula minor; to enhance the nesting habitat of Eudyptula minor by installing and monitoring artificial nesting boxes; to locate and monitor natural burrows; to determine the timing of lifecycle stages ( breeding, moulting ect) of Eudyptula minor on Mauao. Over the duration of the research a total of 106 penguins were banded. There was a recapture rate of 29.84%. The recapture rate is an indicator of a healthy population size. The most productive months were from August-December.


Johnson, P. N.; Gerbeaux, P.
Wetland Types in New Zealand
Department of Conservation, 2004


Abstract: Wetlands are diverse for many reasons, and New Zealand has many sorts. They include bogs and marshes, swamps and seepages, and the edges of lakes, rivers and estuaries. Wetlands are important for biodiversity, birds, fish, plants and people. This book describes a recently-devised system for classifying and naming New Zealand wetland types, and provides an understanding of how wetlands work.


Jones, C.,
Adapting farming to climate variability
Amazing Carbon, 2009


Abstract: This article is aimed at agriculturalists in Australia, but is still applicable to New Zealand farmers. This paper discusses the use of fertilisers on conventional farms and links the effects and impacts of fertilisers on the health of the soil, people and the surrounding ecosystems. Introduction: The financial viability of the agricultural sector, as well as the health and social wellbeing of individuals, families and businesses in both rural and urban communities, are inexorably linked to the functioning of the land. There is widespread agreement that the health of vegetation, soils and waterways in many parts of the Australian landscape have become seriously impaired, resulting in reduced resilience in the face of increasingly challenging climate variability. Agriculture is the sector most strongly impacted by these changes. It is also the sector with the greatest potential for fundamental redesign. The Australian nation has the opportunity to be a world leader in the implementation of innovative technologies centred on adaptation to our variable climate. In addition to enabling the farming community to more effectively deal with warmer, drier conditions, the restoration of landscape function will result in the active drawdown of excess CO2 from the atmosphere via stable biosequestration in soils.


Jones, C.
Soil Carbon -Can It Save Agriculture's Bacon?
Agriculture & Greenhouse Emissions Conference, 2010


Abstract: This paper discusses the state of agriculture in Australia (but is still relevant to New Zealand), soil carbon and soil nitrogen, historical levels of soil carbon compared to present day and changing the face of agriculture. Introduction: The number of farmers in Australia has fallen 30 per cent in the last 20 years, with more than 10,000 farming families leaving the agricultural sector in the last five years alone. This decline is ongoing. There is also reluctance on the part of young people to return to the land, indicative of the poor image and low income-earning potential of current farming practices. Agricultural debt in Australia has increased from just over $10 billion in 1994 to close to $60 billion in 2009. The increased debt is not linked to interest rates, which have generally declined over the same period (Burgess 2010). The financial viability of the agricultural sector, as well as the health and social wellbeing of individuals, families and businesses in both rural and urban communities, is inexorably linked to the functioning of the land. There is widespread agreement that the integrity and function of soils, vegetation and waterways in many parts of the Australian landscape have become seriously impaired, resulting in reduced resilience in the face of increasingly challenging climate variability. Agriculture is the sector most strongly impacted by these changes. It is also the sector with the greatest potential for fundamental redesign. The most meaningful indicator for the health of the land, and the long-term wealth of a nation, is whether soil is being formed or lost. If soil is being lost, so too is the economic and ecological foundation on which production and conservation are based.


Jones, H.
Coastal sedimentation: what we know and the information gaps
Environment Waikato Technical Report 2008/12, 2008


Abstract: This report aims to bring together available information on coastal sedimentation, summarising what is known and identifying what is not known about the sources and the effects of coastal sedimentation. Sedimentation in estuaries is a natural process that can be accelerated by changes in land use or land management within the catchment or by development of structures within the estuary. Estuaries are under increasing pressure from coastal development or catchment activities and development, such as farming, subdivision and vegetation clearance. Estuaries on the east coast of the Coromandel Peninsula are at high risk of infilling because of the erosion nature of their catchments (steep topography and frequent high intensity rainfall events) and the physical nature of the estuaries (sandbars or barriers narrow the harbour entrances). In addition, major land use changes have occurred to pasture (early to mid 20th century) and then exotic production forestry became established from the 1950s until present.


Jones, Tracey C.; Gemmill, Chrissen E. C.; Pilditch, Conrad A.
Genetic variability of New Zealand seagrass (Zostera muelleri) assessed at multiple spatial scales
Aquatic Botany, 2008


Abstract: We conducted RAPD analyses at multiple spatial scales to contribute to the conservation and future restoration of New Zealand's seagrass, Zostera muelleri Irmisch ex Asch. (Zosteraceae). Initially we focused on fine-scale genetic variation within two estuaries on the North Island, one on the East coast the other on the West coast. Within each estuary individuals were genetically similar, however, there was clear genetic separation between the two sites (genetic distance D = 0.2965). Genetic variation within a sampling location (m scale) was similar to that observed among sampling locations (km scale) within a site (21% and 28%, respectively) and smaller than that observed between sites (51%). We then expanded our sampling to include a further six populations distributed across almost the entire latitudinal (ca. 15°) gradient of the North and South Islands. At this scale genetic differences were closely correlated with coastal currents. There was a clear separation between North Island and South Island populations and further separation between the East and West coast populations of each Island. Sites located along the same section of coastline were more genetically similar than those from the opposite coast and other Island. Genetic similarity was highest within each of the sites, indicating a low degree of gene flow between populations. We recommend that any future restoration and conservation projects use only locally eco-sourced materials for population augmentations.


Judd, M. C.; Stuthridge, T. R.; McFarlane, P. N.; Anderson, S. M.; Bergman, I.
Bleached kraft pulp mill sourced organic chemicals in sediments from a New Zealand River. Part II: Tarawera river
Chemosphere Journal, 1996


Abstract: The concentrations of resin acids, chlorophenolic compounds and resin acid derived neutral compounds (fichtelite, dehydroabietin, tetrahydroretene and retene) were measured in river sediments above and below the effluent discharges of two New Zealand pulp and paper mills. The two mills, a sulphonated chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) and tissue mill, and an integrated kraft and mechanical pulp and paper mill, discharge secondary treated effluent into the Tarawera River in New Zealand. No significant concentrations of pulp and paper mill sourced organic compounds were found at background sites. Below the CTMP mill slight increases in the concentrations of the resin acids and resin acid derived neutral compounds were measured. Elevated concentrations of all three compound classes were observed downstream of the second pulp and paper mill. Total concentrations of chlorophenolic compounds and resin acids in the river sediments from below the second mill effluent discharge reached to 17.0 ng g−1 and 23.1 μg g−1 dry weight respectively. Still higher concentrations of chlorophenolic compounds and resin acids, 58.7 ng g−1 and 94.5 μg g−1 respectively, were present in sediments from a downstream estuarine lagoon which was previously part of the river system. The organic carbon content in sediments was a principle constituent governing the concentrations of pulp and paper mill derived compounds in the New Zealand receiving water systems.


Juinio-Meñez, Marie Antonette; Newkirk, G. F.; Coastal Resources Research Network.; University of the Philippines. Marine Science Institute.,
Philippine coastal resources under stress
Coastal Resources Research Network, Dalhousie University, 1995


Abstract: Coastal ecosystems in the Philippines and all over Southeast Asia are under severe stress from the combined impacts of human overexploitation, physical disturbance, pollution, sedimentation and general neglect. Although this region is the tropical marine and coastal biodiversity center of the world, the decline of coral reef, seagrass, mangrove and estuarine quality and productivity is disturbing. Surveys in the 1980s and 1990s have shown that more than 75% of the coral reefs in the country have been degraded from human activities.



Kalayarasi, S
Feeding and burrowing in a North Island New Zealand population of the estuarine mud crab, Helice crassa
University of Auckland, 2000


Abstract: Benthic organisms interact with and modify the sediment in which they live by their feeding and burrowing activities. These two activities result in bioturbation, a major ecological process in soft sediment habitats. Bioturbators themselves can be affected if they live in polluted estuaries, as their feeding and burrowing may result in accumulation of contaminants in their tissues, which might ultimately affect their behaviour or physiology. This thesis documents aspects of the feeding and burrowing of the mud crab Helice crassa, a common inhabitant of intertidal sediments throughout New Zealand, that relate to these two processes: bioturbation of the sediment and effects of any contaminants in that sediment. The field component of study was carried out in the mud flats of Whangateau Harbour, and represents the first comprehensive account of the behaviour of a North Island population of this crab. The temporal activity pattern of H.crassa was investigated in both field and laboratory situations. H.crassa exhibited temporal organisation for different activities according to different tides and times of the day. It is postulated that H.crassa has tidal and circadian endogenous clocks that may enable it to anticipate and prepare the sense organs for the changes that occur on its home beach. However, much of a crab's activities appear to be a response to immediate and exogenous stimuli. Of particular relevance was the finding that they were most active during daytime low tides. Fine structures of mouthparts were analysed using scanning electron microscopy to determine whether H.crassa's distribution on the shore could be explained by its ability to feed on different substrata. With the exception of a lack of setae on the inner surface of the chelae, H.crassa is well adapted to feeding on a wide range of material. It possesses the full array of setae that were identified as necessary to feed on muddy and sandy substrata at both low and high water. Foraging pattern in terms of the size and shape of home ranges was quantified with respect to different densities of crabs and different sizes of individuals. Home range size increased with crab size. The radius of the foraging area decreased with an increase in crab density. The position and size of any neighbouring crabs influenced the directions of feeding excursions; the majority of feeding excursions took place away from neighbouring crabs. The findings indicated that the shape and size of individual feeding areas of H.crassa results from intra-specific interactions and that the population has a 'despotic' distribution (i.e.they are not “free”, to move). This aspect was further tested by examining the spatial dispersion of burrows. Organic and water content of the surficial sediment samples were also analysed to determine the relationship with crab density. Dispersion patterns are also likely to be density dependent; at higher crab densities, dispersion was uniform but this changed to random at lower densities. There was no consistent relationship found either between crab density and organic content of surface sediments or crab density and water content of the sediments. The factors which determine the burrowing activity, were examined as the depth of burrows may influence the rate of bioturbation by burrowing. While the depth of burrows increased with the size of the crabs, not all burrows reached down to the water table. In addition, H.crassa possesses well-developed setae to suck up interstitial water and crabs are likely to depend on this interstitial water particularly in sandy substrata. In order to quantify the rate of bioturbation, burrow characteristics such as burrow: crab ratio, residence time in burrows, longevity of burrows and burrow architecture were investigated for all four seasons, and sediment turnover rates were then estimated. The bioturbational activity by burrowing is likely to be greatest in summer-spring (a sediment turnover rate of 126-l35%) than in autumn-winter (a sediment turnover rate 48-91 %). The seasonal values were then converted to annual estimates on both a "per crab" basis and a "per unit area" basis. These estimates of sediment turnover rate, and consequently the total amount of new surface area exposed per unit time were greater compared to published studies that have estimated the bioturbational activity of other crab species. The responses of H.crassa in terms of accumulation in the tissues and changes to burrowing activity as a result of exposure to different levels of copper, zinc and lead contaminated sediments were examined. The results indicated that H.crassa is a robust species that can regulate to a wide range of ambient zinc and copper bioavailabilities at an approximately constant level. Therefore, H.crassa is not likely to be an effective bioindicator for the generally low levels of zinc (< 300 µg Zn g-1) and copper (< 500 µg Cu g-1) that are found currently in New Zealand, estuarine sediments. However, H.crassa could be used as an indicator for higher levels of lead pollution in estuarine sediment, because they accumulated lead in proportion to the concentration of lead in the sediment. The resilient behaviour that H.crassa showed for the metal contaminated sediments suggests that H.crassa would turbate the contaminated sediments and may increase the bioavailability of the contaminants in polluted estuaries. Overall, H.crassa is an efficient bioturbator and can be considered as a pivotal species in the natural functioning of estuaries in New Zealand.





Kaspar, H.,
Make Money and Save the Eel
VIP Publications Ltd, 2010


Abstract: World-wide, eel populations are dwindling and eel fisheries are collapsing. The most commercially important European, Japanese and North American eels are threatened with extinction. Yet there is still a big eel farming industry, mainly in East Asia. This is possible because wild glass eels (similar to whitebait and equally delicious!) are caught along the shores of Europe (legally and otherwise) and then sold live, mainly to China, for on-growing in farms. It’s good to know that eel farming is technologically feasible, but I believe this industry is doomed as long as it is based on wild glass eels for seed. Our own 2 major eel species may not yet be immediately threatened with extinction, but nobody will argue that their populations have also been declining. There are many reasons for this, including habitat destruction, obstruction of migration by dams and culverts, pollution and fishing.


Keeley, N.; Pilditch, C.
Monitoring of submerged reef biota off Motuotau Island in relation to dredge spoil dumping by Port of Tauranga Ltd
University of Waikato, 1998


Abstract: Background

  • Dredge spoil resulting from the development and maintenance of the Port of Tauranga has for over a quarter century been dumped in a series of zones on the inner shelf off Mount Maunganui.
  • A major channel deepening and widening programme was undertaken in 1992, resulting in the dumping of 4.5 million cubic metres of spoil on a new dump ground in 25 to 30 metres of water.
  • A monitoring programme was designed to determine if the dumped sediment was impacting on the reef biological communities around Motuotau Island inshore from the dump ground. A control site and two test sites were established in May 1990 on submerged reefs near the island.
  • Photographic monitoring of approximately 3m long permanent transects close to the rock/sand boundary followed changes in rocky bottom biota.
  • Metal stakes driven into the sandy seabed near the rocks enabled measurement of changes in the level of sediments.
  • To date, monitoring has taken place three times in 1990, three times in 1991, once in 1993 and 1995 and most recently in 1998. This report presents the results from the 1998 survey, in comparison with and additional to that of Grace (1997).


  • In general terms the reefs around Motuotau Island seem to be healthy and in a state typical of reefs of similar depth, aspect and exposure found elsewhere on neighbouring coastline.
  • In concurrence with Grace (1997), the 1998 survey found no evidence to indicate any significant recent sediment induced modifications of the rocky reef communities on the designate monitoring sites.
  • During the course of this survey changes in sediment cover were noted. However, as with the 1009-1995 surveys, it is accepted that these occur naturally and are well within fluctuations that could be expected on shallow, relatively exposed sand surrounded reefs such as these.
  • The findings of this recent survey are also in agreement with Grace (1997) that: “Small quantities of the fine sediment dusting the rocky bottom biota appeared to be derived from localised turbidity during rough weather. Some marine organisms can temporarily stabilise this material during periods of calm.”
  • Missing pins at some sites prohibited the comparison of individual flora noted in previous years with the 1998 survey. However, the new transects are all within a few metres of the original transects and encompass the same animal community types, which means assessment is possible.
  • Between 1009-1995 fluctuations in sediments levels were established from the stake measurements. The observed fluctuations were considered to be within the range of natural change. In 1998 no measurements could be made dues to absence and/or severe corrosion of all of the measuring stakes. These have since been re-established.
  • As a result of the extensive re-marking and re-establishment of sites required to repeat this survey, this exercise has also served to re-align the structures and further refine the protocols for future monitoring.


Keesing, V.
Tauranga Harbour Mangroves - ecological issues and values
Boffa Miskell, 2003


Abstract: In a report prepared for the Tauranga District Council, "Tauranga Harbour Mangroves - Ecological Issues and Values", four areas have been identified within the harbour as sites where the community has concerns about the spread of mangroves and a desire to manage that spread. On behalf of the Tauranga District Council, Boffa Miskell has drafted a discussion document relating to the Council's proposal to develop and implement a community led mangrove management project. A 117% increase in the area of mangroves within Tauranga Harbour has been documented to have occurred over the past 50 years. The report indicates that the communities concern appear to focus on the five following precepts:

  1. Mangroves are obstructing accessto, and recreational enjoyment of the harbour
  2. Mangroves are changing pleasant 'sandy beaches' to unpleasant mud flats with visual and cultural impacts
  3. Mangroves can obscure views from nearby properties and public reserves. As houses were constructed to take advantage of the views present, there is some concern mangroves will result in a loss of property values.
  4. Mangrove colonisation is resulting in the loss of mahinga kai (food sources for Tangata Whenua)
  5. The mangroves colonisation is causing the loss of the harbour's significant salt marsh communities/habitats ecological diversity.





Kennedy, D. M.; Dickson, M. E.
Cliffed coasts of New Zealand: perspectives and future directions
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 2007


Abstract: About one-quarter of New Zealand's shoreline is composed of cliffs. In some areas erosion rates are sufficiently rapid to be of concern to planners, whereas other cliffs have eroded imperceptibly slowly over human timescales. This paper reviews work conducted on New Zealand's cliffed coasts, from the pioneering studies of Sir Charles Cotton, who used Davisian theoretical methods to elucidate the evolution of hard-rock coasts, to Jeremy Gibb's nationwide benchmark measurements of historical erosion rates. This review is augmented with a description of state-of-the art methods in use globally for investigating processes of cliff evolution. Key methods identified include detailed measurements using the micro-erosion meter as well as novel geophysical methods of studying cliff movement under wave loading. Such process-based studies build on previous research that has been largely confined to explanatory description and observation. It is recognised that the combined impact of such studies has been relatively muted, owing particularly to the difficulty of unravelling ambiguous process-form interactions. However, the increasingly widespread availability of terrestrial and aerial remote laser scanning systems now provides an opportunity to re-invigorate such studies by extending the scale from local to regional. The paper concludes by outlining prospects within New Zealand for further research. In particular, the development and use of numerical models is seen as an important avenue both for clarifying some basic behaviours observed on cliffed coasts, and for studying the likely response of eroding cliffs to future climate change.


Kenny, G
Biotic effects of climate change in the Bay of Plenty
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2006


Abstract: This report is based on an unequivocal view that climate change is happening. Thus, consideration of impacts and adaptation responses do not simply relate to sometime in the future. Biotic changes are happening now, with an as yet unknown influence from climate change. Fundamental questions for Environment Bay of Plenty relate to what and how much needs to be known to develop and implement appropriate adaptation responses and over what time frames. The approach taken has been to work through a stepwise process of identifying key issues, assessing effects, evaluating risk, and considering adaptation options and further steps. Existing knowledge and expertise within Environment Bay of Plenty has been used as much as possible.


Kidd, D.; Burrell, M.; Bush-King, D.; Farnsworth, M.; Gibbs, N.; Volkerling, K.; Woods, K.
Re-Starting Aquaculture: Report of the Aquaculture Technical Advisory Group
Aquaculture Technical Advisory Group, 2009


Abstract: A Technical Advisory Group (TAG) was established to provide the government with a report with recommendations to enable the development of sustainable aquaculture in New Zealand after the 2004 aquaculture reforms severely restricted research and development. Furthermore, no new space has been created under this reform. This report identifies the issues and gives recommendations to "re-start New Zealand's aquaculture industry".



Kildow, Judith T.; Huguenin, John E.; Baram, Michael S.
Problems and potentials of recycling wastes for aquaculture
United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sea Grant Program, 1974


Abstract: The potentialities and problems of using thermal effluents and/or secondary sewage as inputs to a marine aquaculture system is the main focus of this study. The demand on coastal zones for both waste disposal and food production is complimented by the rising feed cost for raising fish and farm animals. In examining the advantages of a waste-food recycle system current and foreseeable problems, especially including those dealing with biological, social, political and legal matters become more recognizable and obtainable in deriving solutions. Economic planning, institutions of concern, consumer acceptance of waste-grown seafoods and marketing strategies are discussed. The state-of-the-art and potential development involving the use of thermal effluents in marine aquaculture, include the problems of thermal waste, aquaculture potential, and technical, biological and chemical problems. The use of domestic sewage and metal contamination are also major factors.


Klaus, M.
Port of Tauranga: investigation of sediments to be dredged in the lower Town Reach-Upper Stella Passage and disposed of at an inner shelf dump ground
Port of Tauranga, 1998


Abstract: For the 1992 major “Channel Deepening and Widening Programme” of the Tauranga Port Company Ltd. Extensive investigations, involving vibrocores and subbottom profiling, established that predominantly the channel bottom sediment in Tauranga Harbour consists of marine sand. Only in the Stella Passage a band of puggy estuarine silt was identified in the area to be dredged in the inner Stella Passage upstream from the present Sulphur Point wharves for the Sulphur Point Wharf Extension South.


Knill, K.
Seals - strange visitors and sad endings
Department of Conservation (blog), 2009


Abstract: We had a rare visitor this week – an immature Leopard seal was found snoozing on the edge of the Waimapu Estuary, near Tauranga Airport. Usually inhabiting Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic seas, these are the most ferocious of the seal species. Regardless of rarity – our approach to this seal was much the same as when the more common NZ fur seal turns up on Tauranga beaches – a regular occurrence, especially during spring. We left him alone to rest, in the knowledge that he’ll eventually move on – although we did put up some warning signs in case an unwary member of the public got too close to those powerful jaws. I had to explain our minimal intervention policy to a member of the public today – she had reported an unwell NZ fur seal pup and was disappointed that we’d done nothing to save it. Letting nature take it’s course can sometimes be the hardest thing to do and it felt wrong to her that no-one would help – I can see the double-standard when our messages are usually about getting involved and making a difference. The Department’s minimum intervention policy is in place due to the high human health risks involved in working with seals, low rehabilitation success rates and a focus on species conservation. Seals carry diseases such as TB, seal finger and salmonella that are very easily transmitted to humans whom come into contact with them – there have been several examples of people becoming hospitalised following attempts to care for seals. For that reason, we discourage public contact with them. Fur seals are breeding locally and come ashore to rest especially after heavy seas. Pups are leaving the rookery and can appear thin whilst they learn to find food for themselves. Pups that are unable to fend for themselves can become emaciated and die of starvation or other disease. Seals often look like they are crying or weeping which people often mistake as a sign of illness or unhappiness, it is in fact the way that they excrete excess salt from their bodies. Unless a seal is being harassed, is entangled in marine debris, is severely injured, or it presents a danger to the public, DOC leaves its management to the original expert, nature. Seals with obvious injuries, in hazardous locations i.e. roads or being harassed, should be reported to the local DOC office. Conservation emergencies can be reported to a 24 hour hotline 0800 DOC HOT (0800 362 468). Project Jonah runs marine mammal medic training and volunteer programmes that are focused on whales and dolphins and suggest ways that people can assist in the protection of whales, dolphins and seals.


Knox, G. A.; Kilner, A. R.
The ecology of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary
Christchurch Drainage Board, 1973



Kott, P.
A complex didemnid ascidian from Whangamata, New Zealand
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2002


Abstract: An undescribed species of the genus Didemnum (Didemnidae) reported from installations in Whangamata Harbour (Coromandel Peninsula), has a unique and conspicuous three-dimensional growth form (possibly associated with vertical and undersurfaces it occupies). It is also distinguished by a combination of the few characters available to define these small, simplified, convergent organisms. Its stellate spicules are sparse except for a patchy layer in the surface test, primary common cloacal canals are the full depth of the zooids, nine vas deferens coils surround the testis, the gut is long forming a double loop, and larvae have six pairs of ectodermal ampullae. Eleven species said to belong to this genus have previously been reported from New Zealand, but only six are valid Didemnum spp., and they all are distinguished readily from the present species. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the new species is introduced, and the simplest explanation of it occurrence is that it is part of the little known indigenous didemnid fauna of New Zealand.


Krauss, K. W.; Lovelock, C. E.; McKee, K. L.; Lopez-Hoffman, L.; Ewe, S. M. L.; Sousa, W. P.
Environmental drivers in mangrove establishment and early development: A review
Aquatic Botany, 2008


Abstract: Mangroves have a global distribution within coastal tropical and subtropical climates, and have even expanded to some temperate locales. Where they do Occur, mangroves provide a plethora of goods and services, ranging from coastal protection from storms and erosion to direct income for human societies. The mangrove literature has become rather voluminous, prompting many subdisciplines within a field that earlier in the 20th century received little focus. Much of this research has become diffuse by sheer numbers, requidring detailed syntheses to make research results widely available to resource managers. In this review, we take all inclusive approach in focusing on eco-physiological and growth constraints to the establishment and early development of mangrove seedlings in the intertidal zone. This is a critical life stage for mangroves, i.e., the period between dispersal and recruitment to the sapling stage. We begin with some of the research that has set the precedent for seedling-level eco-physiological research in mangroves, and then we focus oil recent advances (circa. 1995 to present) in our understanding of temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity, light, nutrient, flooding, and specific biotic influences on seedling survival and growth. As Such, we take a new approach in describing seedling response to global factors (e.g., temperature) along with site-specific factors (e.g., salinity). All variables will strongly influence the future of seedling dynamics in ways perhaps not yet documented in mature forests. Furthermore, understanding how different mangrove species call respond to global factors and regional influences is useful for diagnosing observed mortality within mangrove wetlands, managed or natural. This review provides an updated eco-physiological knowledge base for future research and reforestation activity, and for understanding important links among climate change, local physico-chemical condition, and establishment and early growth of mangrove seedlings. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Krüger, J. C.
Sedimentation at the entrance channel of Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
University of Waikato, 1999


Abstract: This study investigated the sedimentation at the Entrance Channel of Tauranga Harbour. Textural (e.g. grain size patterns), hydrodynamic, sediment flux, and morphologic studies were undertaken to assess the sediment transport and physical processes leading to shoaling at specific areas in the Entrance Channel. The basic issue addressed by this study concerns the causes for the deposition zones along the Entrance Channel, i.e. the hydrodynamics associated with conditions of sediment transport and deposition at teh dredged Entrance Channel. From the investigation it can be concluded that the depositional patterns in the EntranceChannel are controlled by hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes that are systemic to sediment transport at a stable tide-dominated, mixed energy, inlet. However, the complicated morphology of the ebbtidal delta, in conjunction with teh dredged Entrance Channel, creates an environment that leads to strong velocity production primarily by differential bottom friction. It is suggested that, a tide-induced transient eddy exerts spatial control on sediment transport and deposition, leading to enhanced sedimentation along the eastern margin of the Entrance Channel. The shoaling is congruent with the pathway of the tide-induced transient eddy, and accounted for more than 50% (~70000m³) of the volume dredged from the Entrance Channel in 1998.


Krüger, J. C.; Healy, T. R.
Mapping the morphology of a dredged ebb tidal delta, Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand
Coastal Education & Research Foundation, Inc, 2006


Abstract: The morphological units of an ebb tidal delta were mapped and results used to evaluate the relationship between morphology and hydrodynamics, as part of an investigation into the sedimentation at the Entrance Channel at Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand. Four end-member map units (shell lag, coarse sand, medium sand, and fine sand) were identified from the sidescan sonar imagery, which was verified using seabed sediment samples and SCUBA diver observations. These four units were used in a classification scheme that consisted of 10 composite map units. The use of standardized map units helped to reduce the subjectivity involved in sidescan sonar image interpretation. The mapping scheme was used to assist in the understanding of the impact of capital dredging on the morphological evolution of an ebb tidal delta. Observed morphological changes over the ebb tidal delta were attributed to possible changes in the asymmetry of the vertical tide and residual eddy currents.



La Bonte, Andre, W.; La Bonte, Robin, R; Farnsworth, Mark, C
The New Zealand Mangrove; Monoculture vs. Mangal; Sustainable Management of the New Zealand Mangrove
Landcare Research, 2003


Abstract: This is an unpublished paper from Landcare Research on the sustainable management of New Zealand mangroves. This paper denotes the value of mangroves of New Zealand and suggests they should not be compared as being as valuable as the mangroves of tropical climates.


Larcombe, M.F.;Donovon, W.F.
A preliminary assessment of some aspects of the ecology of Tauranga Harbour
Bioresearches Ltd, 1974


Abstract: The preliminary ecological study of the Tauranga Harbour has several aims:


  1. To make a preliminary assessment of the ecology of the Harbour by studying areas that are representative of the range of ecological variation within the Harbour.
  2. To identify areas in which ecological problems, or potential ecological problems occur; to discuss such problems, and make proposals for further investigation.
  3. To make recommendations as to the nature of further ecological study of the Harbour with the aim of providing information of use in managing the natural resources of the Harbour


  1. To study the ecology of the Welcome Bay region – with particular reference to the area S.A.6.of the waters classification.
  2. To study the ecology of an area on Rereatukahia Estuary, in which known pollution is occurring from waste discharge from the Katikati Dairy Factory.
  3. To examine populations of edible shellfish form different parts of the Harbour with a view of using such populations as indicators of general ecological conditions.

Specific monitoring sites are: Welcome Bay (several sites); Reretukahia Eastuary; around Motuhoa Island; Mount Maunganui town beach; Mount Maunganui wharf area; Park Rd; Katkati; Kauri Point; Tuapiro Inlet; Katikati Harbour. The intertidal ecology of Tauranga Harbour is generally natural, healthy and stable. There is considerable ecological variation within the Harbour (expected). The extensive Zoestera beds, salt marsh and mangrove marsh at high intertidal levels, are highlighted for being very ecologically important for their key role in providing habitat for invertebrates, juvenile fish and other fauna, which in turn are food sources for higher organisms such as other fish and birds. Their role in deposition of fine sediments is also highlighted. Specifically, the importance of the salt marsh and mangrove marsh areas as a habitat for the edible mud snail (Amphibola crenata), an important food source for local Maori, is observed; this is where the larvae first settle due to the shelter these habitats provide, as well as the adequate food available. Monitoring results of populations of key edible shellfish species are provided. These include: Amphibola crenata – mud snail, Amphidesma australe – pipi, Chione stutchburyl – cockle, Perna canaliculus – green mussel, Pecten novaezelandiae – scallop.




Lawrie, A.
Tauranga Harbour Integrated Management Strategy
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2006

Abstract: This report arises from the Environment Bay of Plenty Long Term Council Community Plan 2004-2014. In accordance with the Council direction it details the issues, gaps and overlaps in the management of Tauranga Harbour and provides recommended actions to address gaps. Considerable effort has been made to objectively evaluate each issue raised. While the report has been produced by Environment Bay of Plenty there has been significant input from the Western Bay of Plenty District Council (WBOPDC) and Tauranga City Council (TCC). Sedimentation has been identified as the issue of most concern to both the community and to Council staff involved in environmental management. As a result, a detailed review of the available science, the management mechanisms and the projected effects of the SmartGrowth strategy is proposed. Similarly, population growth poses a management challenge for the recreational use of Tauranga Harbour. A strategy to deal with recreation in an integrated way is in preparation. Environment Bay of Plenty has approved the commencement of a series of changes to the Regional Coastal Environment Plan. A number of issues identified in this report can be dealt with as part of those changes, likely to be notified in the 2007 financial year. Additional efforts in monitoring Tauranga Harbour are needed in respect of wetland extent and condition and the effects of stormwater near outfalls. A number of other monitoring recommendations are made. A number of groups involved in the preparation of this report appeared to have a lack of knowledge about investigations carried out by Environment Bay of Plenty. Many of the issues raised in this report can be dealt with by improving the links between the community and the Council. Action needs to be taken to make science and experts more accessible to the public. Likewise, formalising the Estuary Care Groups will assist with this issue. A number of difficulties arise across spatial and functional boundaries. Both regional and district councils need to be mindful of these boundaries and actively work to minimise the integration difficulties caused by legislation.


Leake, J.;Johnson, D.;Donnelly, D.;Muckle, G.;Boddy, L.;Read, D.,
Networks of power and influence: the role of mycorrhizal mycelium in controlling plant communities and agroecosystem functioning
Canadian Journal of Botany, 2004


Abstract: Extra-radical mycelia of mycorrhizal fungi are normally the “hidden half” of the symbiosis, but they are powerful underground influences upon biogeochemical cycling, the composition of plant communities, and agro-ecosystem functioning. Mycorrhizal mycelial networks are the most dynamic and functionally diverse components of the symbiosis, and recent estimates suggest they are empowered by receiving as much as 10% or more of the net photosynthate of their host plants. They often constitute 20%–30% of total soil microbial biomass yet are undetected by standard measures of biomass used by soil scientists and agromomists. Mycorrhizal mycelia provide extensive pathways for carbon and nutrient fluxes through soil, often exceeding tens of metres per gram of soil. We consider the amounts of photosynthate “power” allocated to these mycelial networks and how this is used in fungal respiration, biomass, and growth and in influencing soil, plant, and ecosystem processes. The costs and functional “benefits” to plants linking to these networks are fungal specific and, because of variations in physiology and host specificity, are not shared equally; some plants even depend exclusively on these networks for carbon. We briefly assess the potential contribution of extra-radical mycorrhizal mycelium to sustainable agriculture and maintenance of biodiversity and highlight technologies that promise new vistas and improved fine-scale resolution of the dynamic spatial and temporal functioning of these networks in soil.


Lee, C. E.
Migration of offshore mound constructed by dredged materials
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 1998


Abstract: A numerical model to predict the migration rate of submerged mound constructed by dredged materials due to waves is developed in this paper. The model is based on Bailard's sediment transport rate formula, Stokes' second-order wave theory, and the sediment balance equation. Particularly, the suspended load is included into the present numerical model, so that it may be possible to estimate the migration of mound composed of the mixture sediment accurately. The numerical model is satisfactorily verified by comparison of the numerical results with the field data measured both at Silver Strand mound and at Tauranga mound. The convection-dispersion processes, by which the crest of mound is flatted and moved shoreward at the same time, are generated by the present numerical model very well. In addition, it is found that the migration of mound depends directly on the wave height, the sediment size and the wave period through the analyses on the characteristics of mound migration. The dependence of mound migration on the wave height and the sediment size is relatively stronger than that on the wave period.


Lelieveld, S.D.; Pilditch, C.A.; Green, M.O.
Effects of deposit-feeding bivalve (Macomona liliana) density on intertidal sediment stability
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2004


Abstract: This study investigated the effects of macrofaunal feeding and bioturbation on intertidal sediment stability. By manipulating density of the facultative deposity-feeding wedge shell (Macomona liliana) on the Tuapiro sandflat in Tauranga Harbour, it was found that sediment stability increased up to 200% with decreasing M. liliana density and this was correlated with greater sediment microalgal biomass and mucilage content. The change in stability occurred despite homogeneity of grain size amongst experimental treatments, highlighting the importance of macrofaunal-microbial relationships in determining estuarine sediment erodibility.


Les, D.H.; Moody, M.L.; Jacobs, S.W.L.; Bayer, R.J.
Systematics of seagrasses [Zosteraceae] in Australia and New Zealand
Journal of Systematic Botany, 2002


Abstract: Previous taxonomic treatments of the family Zosteraceae in Australia/New Zealand have recognized Heterozostera tasmanica (monotypic) and four Zostera species all belonging to subgenus Zosterella: Z. capricorni, Z. muelleri, Z. mucronata, Z. novazelandica. Zostera has always been taxonomically problematic in Australia, where researchers have expressed difficulty with species recognition due to vague or inconsistent morphological characters. There also has been a lack of agreement on generic (notably the distinctness of Heterozostera) and subgeneric delimitation. Recent anatomical, developmental, and molecular studies urge a reevaluation of relationships in the family. To clarify the taxonomy of Zosteraceae, we investigated interspecific phylogenetic relationships focusing on Australian species of subgenus Zosterella. We examined material comprising all genera of Zosteraceae (Heterozostera, Nanozostera, Phyllospadix, Zostera), six/seven species of Zostera subgenus Zosterella (including all Australian/New Zealand species), and one of four species of Zostera subgenus Zostera. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of morphological data and DNA sequences from nuclear (ITS) and plastid (trnK intron, rbcL) genomes. Our results indicate two major clades (highly divergent at both morphological and molecular levels) and two subclades (with low morphological and molecular divergence) within Zosteraceae. Little morphological and molecular variation was observed among representatives within the clade of Australian/New Zealand members of subgenus Zosterella, and none provided cladistic support for taxa recognized formerly as separate species. We recommend that Zosteraceae comprise two genera (Phyllospadix, Zostera) with the latter subdivided into three subgenera (Zostera, Zosterella, Heterozostera). Furthermore, Australian/New Zealand representatives of Zostera subgenus Zosterella should be merged within a single species (Z. capricorni) to reflect the inability of morphological or molecular data to effectively delimit additional species in this group.



Linsleynoakes, G. C.
Improving flowering of kiwifruit in climatically marginal areas using hydrogen cyanamide
Scientia Horticulturae, 1989


Abstract: Application of hydrogen cyanamide (H2NC N; Dormex ®) more than doubled the average flowering intensity when applied to 8 kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Laing and A.R. Ferguson) orchards in the Western Cape. All pollinated flowers set fruit and this represented a potential doubling of production. There appeared to be some interaction between concentration and application time. Concentration had a much greater influence than application time. Three and 4% hydrogen cyanamide gave the highest flowering intensities. Application 5, 4 or 3 weeks before natural bud break gave equally good results, however, the vines showed increasing sensitivity to hydrogen cyanamide with decreasing time to bud break. The increased flowering intensity was brought about mainly by a more compact bud break period, which increased the proportion of flower-bearing (reproductive) shoots, as well as by an increase in the number of flowers on individual shoots. Overall bud break percentages were increased as well, but this had a smaller influence than the altered flower development pattern. The low chilling cultivar ‘Abbott’ was more sensitive to the chemical than cultivar ‘Hayward’ and showed phytotoxicity at the higher concentration (4%). The mature vines were naturally more productive, but showed a lower response to hydrogen cyanamide than the young vines. Mature vines generally had higher average flower numbers per reproductive shoot. The response to hydrogen cyanamide appeared to be greater in the orchards that received higher winter chilling accumulation.


Lloyd, B.D.
Potential Effects of Mussel Farming on New Zealand's Marine Mammals and Seabirds: A Discussion Paper
Department of Conservation, 2003


Abstract: Mussel farming is an important and expanding industry in New Zealand. In the year 2000, there were nearly 3000 ha of mussel farms, with proposals for a further 39 000 ha including offshore farms of up to 4000 ha each. There have been no concerted attempts to investigate the effects of mussel farms on marine mammals and seabirds. However, there is growing evidence of adverse effects as these animals are in direct competition for space in the most productive coastal waters. Mussel farms deplete phytoplankton and zooplankton; modify the benthic environment, species assemblages, and local hydrodynamics; increase marine litter; and facilitate the spread of unwanted organisms. Thus, the establishment of mussel farms may lead to loss and degradation of wildlife habitat, either by exclusion or as a consequence of changes to the ecosystem. Thus far, the only adverse effects reported within New Zealand are the exclusion of dusky dolphins from mussel farms areas, and the entanglement and deaths of two Bryde’s whales in mussel spat-catching lines. Because of the limited extent of mussel farms to date, effects on wildlife were dismissed as inconsequential. However, the proposed increase in the area used for mussel farming changes the scale of effects and prompts concern. The construction of large offshore farms across the seasonal migration routes of large whales is particularly worrying. An ecologically sustainable mussel farming industry requires a programme to monitor the industry’s effects on wildlife and other forms of marine biodiversity. This report provides a resource to assist the mussel farming industry, coastal planners and researchers in the development of an ecologically sustainable industry.


Lohrer, A. M.; Thrush, S. F.; Hewitt, J. E.; Berkenbusch, K.; Ahrens, M.; Cummings, V.
Terrestrially derived sediment: response of marine macrobenthic communities to thin terrigenous deposits
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2004


Abstract: Coastal marine habitats adjacent to catchments with encroaching human development are likely to experience increased sediment loadings in ensuing decades. Thus, sedimentary disturbance regimes in which coastal marine benthic communities have evolved may be shifting as depositional events exceeding critical thresholds become more frequent. To understand the threat posed by terrigenous sedimentation in an embayment with increasing urban development, we determined the thickness and frequency at which terrigenous sediment deposits begin to affect the benthos. We performed manipulative experiments involving layers of terrigenous sediment <1 cm thick in a variety of intertidal habitats in the Whitford embayment, North Island, New Zealand. Results of 3 separate experiments performed at 5 sites were largely consistent. While experimental plots were never completely defaunated, as little as 3 mm of the terrigenous material was sufficient to significantly alter macrobenthic community structure (measured after 10 d, relative to 0 mm controls). The direction of change was predominantly negative; the number of individuals and taxa declined as a result of sediment application, as did the densities of nearly every common species. Large bivalves were less affected than smaller ones, and deeper-dwelling species were less affected than ones at the sediment surface. With repeated applications of thin terrigenous layers (3 mm thickness, monthly over a 6 mo period), the sandflat sediments gradually became finer (clay volume % increased), and macrofaunal community composition progressively diverged from controls. To summarise, macrofauna were negatively affected by extremely small amounts of terrigenous sediment, and repeated depositional events did more damage than single ones. With increasing defoliation and excavation of catchment hillsides, the frequency of depositional events of a given intensity is likely to quicken, indicating an enhanced likelihood of macrofaunal disturbance and degradation in estuarine tidal flats. Management decisions that protect coastal catchments may partially ameliorate the threat to the benthos in coastal receiving waters.





Longdill, P.
Environmentally sustainable aquaculture: an eco-physical perspective
University of Waikato, 2008


Abstract: The New Zealand aquaculture industry during the late 1990s and early 2000s experienced a significant and sustained period of growth. Greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) are proving to be a popular and valuable cultured species, with large domestic and international markets. Traditionally, these bivalves have been farmed within enclosed embayments and on relatively small scales (~3 Ha). The recent expansion of the industry coupled with the near saturation of existing 'traditional' sites and new culture technologies has led the industry toward alternate environments, notably exposed offshore sites. Initial proposals within the Bay of Plenty have included multiple farms of ~4500 Ha each. This novel approach to shellfish culture created uncertainty with respect to potential environmental impacts, cumulative effects, and sustainable carrying capacities within these exposed open-coast locations. In zoning for Aquaculture Management Areas (AMAs), environmental managers must be informed of each of these aspects to ensure the rational and sustainable use of the coastal-marine space. The overall goal of this study is to determine the potential for environmentally sustainable large-scale offshore mussel culture within the Bay of Plenty marine environment. The long term sustainability of aquaculture development on an open coast is a function of many influences which can vary in both time and space. The benthic environments of the Bay of Plenty exhibit great variability in their ability to assimilate waste inputs from suspended mussel culture; a direct function of the variability in sedimentary environments and benthic habitats within the region. Specifically, silty sediments with low natural organic contents, generally found between 40 and 100 m depths are the most suitable locations for sustainable mussel aquaculture from an environmental impact perspective. Both observations and model predictions indicate productivity potential within the region to be greatest within neritic zones of the western Bay of Plenty. Local wind forcing is the predominant mechanism forcing local shelf currents. Current meter data and numerical modelling tests from this study indicate that local winds explain the majority of water current variability on the shelf, generate the delivery of new nutrients to the shelf through upwelling, and hence create the variability in productivity potential. Complicating the AMA zoning process for environmental managers, however, are existing uses of, and societal values toward, the coastal-marine environment. GIS planning tools have been shown to be effective at minimising conflicts and maximising sustainability potential through informed site selection. Within the Bay of Plenty, these preferential sites are located on the mid-shelf (60-80 m depths) offshore from Pukehina, Matata, and Whakatane. This study shows that the simulated cumulative lower trophic-level depletion impacts of two large (~5000 Ha) proposed offshore mussel farms vary seasonally as a result of subtle changes in ecosystem dynamics and mussel feeding patterns. At proposed stocking densities, largest relative impacts are expected during autumn and winter, when relative phytoplankton biomass is low and growth rates slow. During spring, while absolute impacts are greater than those during autumn/winter, greater phytoplankton-zooplankton biomass and faster growth rates result in quicker recovery times and reduced 'depletion halo' extents. Year-long predicted impacts are below those applied as 'acceptable limits of change', both within New Zealand and internationally, indicative of the ecological carrying capacity.


Longdill, P.; Black, K.
Numerical Hydrodynamic Modelling: Aquaculture Management Areas
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2006


Abstract: Numerical hydrodynamic modelling of the Bay of Plenty was undertaken to be informed about offshore oceanographic and ecological systems for selection of open coast Aquaculture Management Areas which will sustain the environment, kaimoana and the aquaculture industry in the Bay of Plenty. The broad study involved:

  • Establishing monitoring stations and undertaking regular surveys of water properties, currents and waves
  • Undertaking numerical modelling of circulation and physical dynamics
  • Undertaking numerical modelling of the food chain (food dynamics modelling), with particular focus on green mussels
  • Developing recommendations about the carrying capacity of sites around the Bay of Plenty

The present report deals with the numerical modelling of hydrodynamics for the subsequent primary production modelling and the impacts of large scale green-lipped mussel farming within the Bay of Plenty. The goal of the current stage of the project was to calibrate the hydrodynamic model 3DD from the “3DD Suite”, which were:

  • 2D – 2-dimensional circulation predicting the depth averaged currents.
  • 3DHomo (barotropic) – 3-dimensional circulation models predicting the currents in several levels through the water column.
  • 3DStrat (baroclinic) – 3-dimensional circulation models predicting the currents under salinity and temperature stratified conditions.



Longdill, P.; Black, K.; Haggitt, T.; Mead, S.,
Bay of Plenty Primary Production Modelling: Aquaculture Management Areas; Primary Production Modelling, and Assessment of Large Scale Impacts of Aquaculture Management Areas on the Productivity within Bay of Plenty
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2006


Abstract: The potential effects of several large aquaculture (mussel) farms within the Bay of Plenty have been simulated with a calibrated ecological model. The depletion of phytoplankton and zooplankton are determined for scenarios of two and four large mussel farms (approximately 5000 Ha each) with different relative positions on the inner shelf of the central Bay of Plenty. When averaged over a year, the proposed farms (Opotiki and Pukehina) reduce the phytoplankton in a region some 40 km by 20 km by approximately 1% in the surface waters of the Bay (0-5 m depth). This depletion represents a decrease of ~ 0.04 mg/m3 chlorophyll-a from a typical average value of ~ 4.5 mg/m3. The mussel farms increase the local ammonia concentration by approximately 0.001 g/m3, and deplete the local dissolved oxygen concentration by approximately 0.002 g/m3, from background values of typically 0.05 g/m3 and 8 g/m3 respectively. More severe impacts are evident at the depth layer in the water column where the mussels are located (15-25 m), with phytoplankton abundance reductions of 4-8% being predicted when averaged over the full year. The higher impacts at depth occur over a region some 12 x 6 km, i.e. they are mostly restricted to the environs of the farm and the adjacent coast. Of course, the zone where phytoplankton abundance is reduced is proportional to the total area and mussel density of the farms. To specify carrying capacity of the Bay, the issue to address is whether these reductions to phytoplankton and zooplankton are biologically significant. In particular, while the abundances may be reduced by 4-8% when averaged over the year, the percentage reductions are higher in seasons when natural phytoplankton abundance is lower. Thus, there are both annual and seasonal effects, which will potentially impact on the broader eco-system, which is equally subject to seasonal dynamics. It is unlikely that the production carrying capacity of the Bay of Plenty system will be adversely affected by the level of aquaculture modelled in this study, as even maximum depletion rates resulted in chlorophyll-a levels well above published threshold production carrying capacity levels identified for mussel farming in other parts of New Zealand, e.g., ~ 1 μg L-1. Given the physical and biological characteristics of the Bay of Plenty area, relative to the predicted levels of impact presented here, it is also unlikely that the ecosystem carrying capacity will be adversely affected. Further model simulations are currently underway to consider the influence of climatic factors such as El Nino/La Nina events. Further assessments of the ecosystem carrying capacity can be achieved by additional modelling and investigating present knowledge gaps, particularly the variation in phytoplankton species composition through space and time within the Bay of Plenty and impacts on the zooplankton community. Other factors that also impact on ecosystem health and warrant investigation are the significance of zooplankton mortality due to marine farms with respect to recruitment of other water-borne marine organisms and the potential impacts of mussel spat colonisation to new locations outside the marine farms (resulting to a decreased of marine biodiversity and/or community change).


Longdill, P.;Black, K.; Healy, T.; Mead, S.; Beamsley, B.,
Bay of Plenty Sediment Characteristics: Aquaculture Management Areas - sediment grab samples, analysis and determination of grain size distributions of the Bay of Plenty sub-tidal area 10-100 metres depth
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2005


Abstract: Numerous sediment samples were obtained from the seabed in depths ranging from 10 m to 100 m depth within eastern Bay of Plenty in December 2004. The survey sites were the same as for the Biological Survey – that is, within the eastern Bay of Plenty (Pukehina to Ruakokore). To classify and analyse the sediments of the eastern Bay of Plenty, over 120 sediment samples were obtained using a specially designed grab sampler. In addition, video camera images were obtained to qualitatively assess the seafloor habitat and environment. Samples were analysed for organic content, shell content, and grain size distribution using either a laser-sizer (111 samples) or mechanical sieving. These data represent a significant advancement in the knowledge of the benthic environment of the eastern Bay of Plenty relative to the limited and sparse prior data set of the New Zealand Oceanographic Institute (1979). Coarser sediments dominate the inshore areas of the study region, reflecting the wave energies reaching the seabed. Eastwards of Whakatane, offshore (60 m - 100 m) sediments are dominated by silt-sized fractions typical of 'quiet water depositional environments'. Immediately offshore from Whakatane, however sediments are coarse relative to those at similar depths to the east and west. This trend peaks at between 90 m and 100m depths where the sediments off Whakatane are much coarser than others at similar depths within the study area. This area is adjacent to the White Island Canyon, which may accelerate shore-normal flows as they move down-slope. Further research utilising 3D models of water movements will provide further insights to this pattern. Sediments between 40 and 100 m to the west of Whakatane exhibit two strong peaks in their size distribution, one of sandy-sized material and another of silt-sized material. This pattern is predicted to be a result of the transport of silt-sized material from the more eastern areas of the Bay of Plenty. The figures in this document give excellent visual information. Furthermore, the appendices show graphs of the grain size distribution curves for each transect and the grain size statistics (raw data).


Longdill, P.; Black, K.; Healy, T.R.,
An Integrated GIS Approach for Sustainable Aquaculture Management Area Site Selection
Ocean & Coastal Management, 2008


Abstract: Within New Zealand, growth in the aquaculture industry has led to the diversification of aquaculture sites from more sheltered bays and harbours toward open coast locations. Coastal zone managers, along with the aquaculture industry, aim to ensure the long-term sustainability of any ‘new’ sites selected. Through targeted data collection programmes and the subsequent implementation of Geographic Information System (GIS) based models, the most suitable and sustainable locations for Aquaculture Management Areas (AMAs) can be identified. This approach is applied within the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, with specific reference to suspended mussel (Perna canaliculus) aquaculture. Within the region, areas where maximum sustainability may be achieved make up 18% of the total area considered, with conflicting uses and other constraints accounting for 46%. Whilst further site and development specific studies are required to determine explicit carrying capacities, the effort required has been considerably reduced by eliminating unsuitable locations and identifying those where sustainability can be maximised.


Longdill, P.; Park, S.G.; Black, K.,
Bay of Plenty Shelf Water Properties Data Report 2003-2004: Aquaculture Management Areas - Initial data analysis of shelf CTD and water sample data to determine temporal and spatial patterns in the physical and chemical aspects of the water column
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2005


Abstract: The goal of this report was to provide a summary of the large amount of cross-section data recorded on the shelf in the eastern end of the Bay of Plenty as part of the AMA project. This report focuses on the water column characteristics during transect surveys. The field sampling builds upon a previous survey of coastal shelf waters undertaken in 1996/97 by Park. Sampling for this study was taken from at the same sites, but only the Pukehina, Whakatane and Opotiki sites (and NOT the Tauranga site). Parameters measured were: suspended solids, total organic carbon, dissolved carbon, dissolved reactive silica, dissolved iron, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved reactive phosphorus and phytoplankton. The methods used to measure these parameters are listed in Table 1. The raw data from both the CTD (data at each metre down the water column) and also from the water samples (data more sparse at discrete intervals) were plotted using Golden Software’s Surfer software (graphs for each parameter are displayed as distance from shore in metres (x) versus depth in metres (y)). No written results or discussion is provided.


Longdill, P. C.; Healy, T. R.
Sediment dynamics surrounding a flood tidal delta adjacent to reclamation and a dredged turning basin
Journal of Coastal Research, 2007


Abstract: Field measurements of tidal current velocities are used to infer sediment transport characteristics in the lower section of a large, tidally dominated estuarine system at Whangarei Harbour, New Zealand. Recent (2002) developments at the harbour entrance included a 32.6 ha intertidal reclamation and a 31.8 ha dredged turning basin. Residual distance vectors indicate that the postdevelopment, large-scale pattern of sediment transport dynamics remains consistent. Minor, localised modification of transport potentials has been observed immediately adjacent to the developments, however. These modifications include a slight realignment of current flows near the reclamation wall and some leakage from a previously identified transport loop near the dredged basin. The potential for scour is identified along the eastern margin of the dredged basin, which could act to remove material moving downslope into the basin from its western edge. These data are consistent with numerical model results that predicted minimal consequences resulting from the developments. Lower harbour sediment dynamics are consistent with established patterns for tide-dominated inlets, with separation of the channel into areas of ebb and flood dominance, and typical transport patterns over the flood tidal delta. Broad-scale inlet geomorphology has been maintained, which is consistent with other dredged tide-dominated inlets.





Love, B.; Gaw, S.
Background Levels of Agrichemical Residues in Bay of Plenty Soils: A Preliminary Technical Investigation
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2005


Abstract: SEM New Zealand Limited (SEMNZ) was engaged by Environment Bay of Plenty (EBOP) (the Regional Council) to carry out an assessment of the levels of agrichemical residues in the Bay of Plenty. The objective of this investigation was to assess the general risk posed to the environment and to human health by any remnant agrichemical residues in soils associated with a range of horticultural and agricultural land uses. Methodology: Soil samples were collected from 128 sites in the Bay of Plenty region. These 128 sites comprised seven land use categories; kiwifruit (26 sites), glass houses/market gardens (14), other orchards (16), maize (14), horticulture (10), pasture (23), and control sites3 (25). The sampling locations were selected to avoid areas that were likely to contain any potential hotspots such as spray mixing, storage, equipment wash down areas or old sheep dip sites. Such areas have been identified in previous studies (Gaw 2002) to contain concentrations of over 100 times those found on produce growth areas. A total of ten sub-samples were collected from the representative area at each site, and composited for laboratory testing. The representative area at each site was approximately 1 hectare in size and located within areas where produce was grown (e.g. between rows of fruit trees or vines). Soil samples were analysed for a selection of contaminants associated with agrichemical application throughout the region. All of the sites were analysed for seven trace metals (Cadmium, Arsenic, Nickel, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Chromium) and 24 organochlorine pesticides (including DDT and its break down products). Control and maize sites samples were also analysed for 72 Organonitrogen and Organophosphorus compounds (including Simazine and Atrazine). The analyses were carried out by Hill Laboratories, an IANZ accredited laboratory. The results were compared to both residential and agricultural land use guidelines (trigger levels) as a method of identifying soil contamination levels that may pose either ecological or human health risks. It should be noted that guideline values for human health only are significantly higher than those where ecological protection is considered. Therefore, should the results of this investigation be compared to guidelines for human health only, there would be a considerable reduction in the number of sites exceeding land use values. For the purposes of this report SEMNZ have used the more conservative “50% produce consumption” values from the MfE/MoH, Health and Environment al Guidelines for selected Timber Treatment Chemicals. While SEMNZ is not aware of any studies to determine home grown produce consumption rates in New Zealand, it is likely that the majority of residential occupants consume a much lower percentage of home grown produce. In addition, the MfE is currently revising human health only guidelines for various contaminants such as copper, arsenic and DDT. These revisions, when completed, will likely result in an increase of guideline values for some contaminants. Further information on agrichemical toxicity can be found in the references listed in section 7 and by accessing the websites of the Ministry for the Environment at and the United States Environmental Protection Agency at


Lovelock, C. E.;Feller, I. C.; Ellis, J.; Schwarz, A. M.; Hancock, N.; Nichols, P.; Sorrell, B.
Mangrove growth in New Zealand estuaries: the role of nutrient enrichment at sites with contrasting rates of sedimentation
Oecologia Journal, 2007


Abstract: Mangrove forest coverage is increasing in the estuaries of the North Island of New Zealand, causing changes in estuarine ecosystem structure and function. Sedimentation and associated nutrient enrichment have been proposed to be factors leading to increases in mangrove cover, but the relative importance of each of these factors is unknown. We conducted a fertilization study in estuaries with different sedimentation histories in order to determine the role of nutrient enrichment in stimulating mangrove growth and forest development. We expected that if mangroves were nutrient-limited, nutrient enrichment would lead to increases in mangrove growth and forest structure and that nutrient enrichment of trees in our site with low sedimentation would give rise to trees and sediments that converged in terms of functional characteristics on control sites in our high sedimentation site. The effects of fertilizing with nitrogen (N) varied among sites and across the intertidal zone, with enhancements in growth, photosynthetic carbon gain, N resorption prior to leaf senescence and the leaf area index of canopies being significantly greater at the high sedimentation sites than at the low sedimentation sites, and in landward dwarf trees compared to seaward fringing trees. Sediment respiration (CO2 efflux) was higher at the high sedimentation site than at the low one sedimentation site, but it was not significantly affected by fertilization, suggesting that the high sedimentation site supported greater bacterial mineralization of sediment carbon. Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone has a role in facilitating the expansion of mangroves in estuaries of the North Island of New Zealand, but this effect is secondary to that of sedimentation, which increases habitat area and stimulates growth. In estuaries with high sediment loads, enrichment with N will cause greater mangrove growth and further changes in ecosystem function.


Lowe, F J.;Abboy, J. M.; Steven & Fitzmaurice.; Bay of Plenty Catchment Commission
Tauranga harbour water quality survey: a report
Steven & Fitzmaurice, 1974


Abstract: Despite its popular image overseas as an unspoiled land, New Zealand has clearly changed a lot since humans arrived here. One of the most obvious, and significant, impacts of humans on the landscape has been the clearance of huge areas of native vegetation for farming, habitation and extraction of timber. This has had a major effect on rivers, lakes, estuaries and the coast because they represent the receiving environment for the sediment that is eroded and transported from these disturbed areas by rainwater runoff. Most of today's estuaries began to form around 15,000 years ago, as rising sea levels flooded river valleys until, about 6,000 years ago, sea level stabilised at its present height. The fate of most estuaries since then has been to fill up with sediments. Marine sands typically accumulate near the mouth as sandbanks and delta deposits, under the influence of waves and tides. Finer sediments, derived from erosion of soils in the river catchments, accumulate in more sheltered regions of the upper estuary. After an initial, rapid phase of infilling, the process slows down and eventually, the estuary will fill up to the extent that the river flows across a depositional plain and disgorges its sediment load directly into the sea over a submarine delta. In the final stages of infilling, channels are shoaled, turbidity increases throughout the estuary and sediment collects in backswamps, intertidal flats and marshes, as these features spread down the estuary. This might suggest that if human activity increases the rate of delivery of sediments to estuaries, it is simply hastening an inevitable process and that, therefore, we should not be too concerned about it. This is not necessarily so, for the following reason. We can conceive of a "healthy ageing" of an estuary, in which changes in the estuarine ecosystem keep pace with the changes in patterns of sedimentation that accompany the infilling of the estuary. Conversely, "unhealthy" or "premature" ageing may be brought on by changes in the timing, rate or nature of sediment entering the estuary, such that the ecosystem may not be able to keep pace with changes in the physical environment.Consequences of this might include degradation of water quality (in turn affecting primary producers), decreased biodiversity, dominance of invasive or otherwise undesirable species, premature disappearance of species and reduction of human amenity values. Many, if not all, of these considerations involve human perceptions of what is desirable in an estuarine environment. Some of these perceptions relate directly to our own use of estuaries, so that we might, for example, wish to prevent the loss of commercially, recreationally or culturally important species of fish, areas used for recreation, or deterioration of the aesthetic quality of the estuary, such as decreased water clarity. We do not, however, need to stop at these human interests. Accelerated rates of evolution of estuaries are an inevitable consequence of the growth of human populations and we are left with no choice but to manage this evolution since to do nothing is itself, in effect, a management decision. With improved understanding of how estuarine ecosystems function, we can start to make decisions aimed at restoring more natural rates of change.Two examples drawn from recent work by NIWA (the National Insitute of Water and Atmospheric Research) illustrate this point. The first concerns predicting the effects of catchment development on sediment runoff to an estuary and estimating the associated risk of impacts on populations of animals inhabiting the intertidal flats.The second concerns longer-term changes caused by enhanced sedimentation, in the form of the spread of mangroves within estuaries and the consequent loss of other habitats.



Lyver, P. O. B.
Co-managing environmental research: lessons from two cross-cultural research partnerships in New Zealand
Environmental Conservation, 2005


Abstract: Few cross-cultural environmental research partnerships exist in New Zealand where Maori have been given the autonomy or resources to govern the decision-making process. Maori representatives and scientists from two collaborative research partnerships in New Zealand were interviewed to determine conditions required for successful partnerships, the costs and benefits involved and the roles of kaitiakitanga (environmental guardianship by M (a) over bar ori) and m (a) over bar tauranga (M (a) over bar ori traditional knowledge). Ninety per cent of M (a) over bar ori participants reported that a collaborative partnership should be defined by equitable power sharing and decision-making responsibility, however all the scientists perceived the term was ambiguous and was represented in New Zealand by a continuum of weak to strong power-sharing relationships. Developing trust, distilling and communicating scientific concepts and results, facilitating access to traditional knowledge and building scientific capability within a community can be fundamental to the success of a strong collaborative partnership, but demands a large time commitment, and at times a re-evaluation of priorities, from scientists. Kaitiakitanga and m (a) over bar tauranga can be key to directing and guiding research, but may require scientists to adapt and work within unfamiliar cultural systems. Strong collaborative research has a role to play initiating dialogue and partnership-building, demonstrating environmental, justice, economic and social outcomes, and indirectly building a consciousness in society about problem definition and potential solutions could that lead naturally to co-management of the environment by aboriginal communities and local or central governments.



Macky, G. H.;Latimer, G. J.;Smith, R. K.
Wave climate of the Western Bay of Plenty, New Zealand 1991-93
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1995


Abstract: Wave measurements were made for 3 years from a buoy moored in 34 m water depth off the Katikati inlet in the western Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. The significant wave heights were less than 1 m for 70% of the time, with a mean of 0.8 m, and a maximum of 4.3 m. The peak in the spectral density occurred each year at 0.09-0.10 Hz (10-11 s period). Wave steepness suggests that many of the measured waves originated close to the buoy. The year-to-year uniformity in averaged spectral density masks considerable short-term variability although there is some evidence of higher wave energy in winter. Most wave energy arrived from the north-east to east sector. Calculations of the longshore wave energy flux factor suggest that the direction of littoral drift fluctuates frequently, but during the 3 years studied there was a small nett drift in a north-west direction. Significantly less wave energy was measured at Katikati than in previous studies at Great Barrier Island and Hicks Bay. Our Katikati wave data may not be typical of the long-term climate, because they were obtained in El Nino conditions when fewer storms occur.


Mandeno, M.
Aquaculture New Zealand research strategy
Aquaculture New Zealand, 2009

Abstract: "It is a subcomponent of the New Zealand Aquaculture Strategy and [is] intended to provide guidance on the emphasis of aquaculture R&D efforts"--Publisher's homepage.


Mangrove Steering Group
Mangroves: Current Research Activities and New Zealand Bibliography; A Summary Document Prepared on Behalf of the Mangrove Steering Group
Mangrove Steering Group, 2006


Abstract: A summary document prepared on behalf of the Mangrove Steering Group. This report looks at current and recent research activities around New Zealand on mangroves, including works from Auckland University of Technology, Waikato University, NIWA, Environment Waikato, Northland Regional Council and Environment Bay of Plenty.


Mardon, D.;Stretch, D.
Comparative Assessment of Water Quality at Durban Beaches According to Local and International Guidelines
Water SA Journal, 2004


Abstract: The pathogenic pollution of Durban’s beaches is reviewed on the basis of local and international guidelines by analysing concentrations of indicator micro-organisms (E. coli and enterococci). The average water quality is generally acceptable according to South African guidelines, but assessments based on international guidelines indicate poor water quality at many beaches during some seasons (especially summer). The reason for this inconsistency is the absence of any enterococcus criteria in the SA guidelines, which was found to be particularly significant when the pollution loadings are relatively low. This result confirms epidemiological studies that have shown enterococcus to be a more sensitive indicator of pathogenic pollution in marine environments. South African guidelines should therefore be updated to incorporate enterococcus as the preferred indicator for marine waters.


Maritime New Zealand
Guidelines for aquaculture management areas and marine farms
Maritime New Zealand, 2005


Abstract: The purpose of these guidelines is to provide support for the appropriate authorities while they develop their AMAs and to give guidance to marine-farm applicants on areas of concern for Maritime New Zealand with respect to navigational safety. The introduction of this document gives a brief overview of the change in legislation around aquaculture in New Zealand and a definition of ‘Aquaculture Management Areas’ (AMAs). Maritime New Zealand’s interest in the development of AMAs is limited to matters of navigational safety and lies in the four spheres of location, marketing and lighting, safety management and control and compliance. Chapter’s three and four relate to legislation and Maritime New Zealand’s role and requirements for consultation. Some key statutory requirements when developing AMAs are:

  • The Minister for Transport is in charge of prescribing standards and requirements for navigational aids relevant to applications for coastal permits in respect to the construction of structures, thus regional councils need to consult Maritime New Zealand when developing/changing Regional Coastal Plans in respect to AMAs;
  • Maritime New Zealand or (if delegated) the Harbour Master must approve any changes to aids to navigation;
  • Once a coastal permit is granted, the applicant and regional council must inform the location and size of the marine farm to the Hydrographer of Land Information New Zealand.

Chapter five focuses on location factors when creating AMAs, while chapter six concentrates on marking and lighting requirements; chapter seven on safety management and chapter eight control and compliance. The first appendix gives a list of useful definitions while appendix number II provides a checklist of AMA considerations for council authorities.



Marsden, Islay D.;Bressington, Melanie J.
Effects of macroalgal mats and hypoxia on burrowing depth of the New Zealand cockle (Austrovenus stutchburyi)
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Journal, 2009


Abstract: Macroalgal mats commonly occur in estuaries and sheltered embayments where they are thought to affect the oxygen conditions in the sediment, influence the geochemical process and influence the burrowing activity of bivalves. Laboratory experiments evaluated the effects of sediment hypoxia and algal mats on the burrowing ability and survival of the New Zealand cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi at 15 °C. Both dissolved oxygen concentration and time affected the burial depth of the cockles over the 12 days of the experiment. In hypoxic conditions (<2 mg L-1), cockles migrated to the sediment surface after 3.5 days and mortality occurred after 11 days. Bivalves exposed to oxygen concentrations of 2-3 mg L-1 buried closer to the sediment surface than those in the other treatments. Using a simulated tidal regime, in a mesocosm, burrowing behaviour of the cockle and pore-water oxygen conditions in the sediment were measured on exposure to experimental mats of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva spp. for over 6 days. Algal mats on the surface of the sediment significantly lowered the dissolved oxygen concentration of the sediment pore-water and this effect was greater for the Ulva spp. treatment than the G. chilensis treatment. Cockles were buried more deeply in the control treatment without algae than in either of the two algal treatments. It is concluded that reduced oxygen conditions (<3.5 mg L-1) develop under macroalgal mats and that this reduces the burial depth of cockles. The potential harmful effects of the mats can depend on the species forming the mat and these effects are likely to be greater in the field than they are in controlled laboratory conditions.


Marsden, I. D.; Maclaren, S. R.
Short-term study testing the resilience of an estuarine bivalve to macroalgal mats
Hydrobiologia Journal, 2010


Abstract: Macroalgal mats occur seasonally in many estuaries worldwide but there is little information on their short- or long-term effects on the abundance or resilience of macrofauna. Within a small estuary, with a history of exposure to algal mats (Avon-Heathcote Estuary, Christchurch, New Zealand), we quantified the relationship between macroalgal mats and community composition. There was a high degree of species overlap between sites, and community analysis did not separate out areas that had been previously exposed to mats. Density of the cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi was negatively correlated with current abundances of sea lettuce Ulva and the red alga Gracilaria chilensis. A caging experiment at three sites with different sediment characteristics investigated the survival of the cockle (A. stutchburyi) to short-term exposure to mats of Ulva sp. and G. chilensis. Neither low or high algal biomass had any effect on cockle mortality, macroinvertebrate diversity or the sediment characteristics. Although the population structure of cockles differed amongst sites, bivalves followed normal seasonal development, regardless of the experimental treatment. The results confirm that the cockle has the ability to survive short-term exposure to algal mats.


Matheson, F.;Reed, J.;Dos Santos, V.;Cummings, V.;MacKay, G.;Jordan, M.
Seagrass restoration in Whangarei Harbour: results of a small scale transplantation trial
Northland Regional Council, 2008


Abstract: Seagrass beds once covered large areas of the outer Whangarei Harbour, covering an estimated 14 square kilometres before the early 1960s. Human activities in the upper-mid part of the harbour resulted in the almost complete loss of this important undersea habitat. Since the 1970s, small pockets of seagrass have struggled for survival on the southern shores of Whangarei Harbour. In recent years, there have been encouraging signs that improving water quality is enabling the slow expansion of these pockets.


Matheson, F.;Wadhwa, S.; Taumoepeau, A.; Smith, J.
Seagrass in the Eastern Bay of Islands: past, present abundance, threats and management options
NIWA, 2010


Abstract: This report describes an investigation into the loss of seagrass meadows from the Eastern Bay of Islands area. The project aimed to quantify the loss of seagrass in this area by comparison of historical and recent aerial images, identify factors that may have contributed to seagrass decline and recommend options to protect remaining seagrass and rehabilitate denuded areas.


Matheson, F. E.;Schwarz, A. M.
Growth responses of Zostera capricorni to estuarine sediment conditions
Aquatic Botany, 2007


Abstract: This study comprised (1) a field survey of intertidal seagrass (Zostera capricorni) biomass, cover and photosynthetic potential and sediment characteristics at a range of contrasting sites in three New Zealand harbours, and (2) a microcosm experiment comparing plant responses to sediments from extant versus historical seagrass sites. The field survey showed that the sediment physico-chemical characteristics were generally consistent with the limited previous reports for Zostera environments, although the total P concentration range was higher (0.08-0.72 mg P g -1). Overall, 52% of variation in seagrass cover was explained by sediment water content (R= 0.54) and organic content (R= -0.56). Twenty-two percent of variation in seagrass biomass was explained by sediment total P and redox potential (both R= -0.35). Intra-harbour seagrass-sediment relationships were more significant (explaining up to 82% of plant variation) but harbour-specific. In the microcosm experiment, threefold higher Z.capricorni biomass was maintained on extant thyan historical sediments but not conclusively linked to measure sediment characteristics. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that significant relations can exist between estuarine sediment conditions and Z.capricorni growth responses, and suggest that detrimental change in sediment conditions may be a contributing factor in seagrass decline.





Matthew, J.
Morphological changes of tidal deltas and an inner shelf dump ground from large scale dredging and dumping, Tauranga, New Zealand
University of Waikato, 1997


Abstract: The Port of Tauranga is located within a tidal inlet estuarine system that has been dredged to improve navigation for shipping since 1968. During a major capital dredging programme in 1991-92 the shipping channels were deepened by removing about 5 million m3 of sediment. A number of conditions were imposed by the consent granting authorities before the Port Company was permitted to undertake the dredging and dumping. As one of the conditions, a detailed monitoring programme was instituted to identify any adverse effects on the flood and ebb-tidal deltas due to dredging and on the inner shelf due to the disposal of dredged material.


Mathew, J.;Healy, T. R.;De Lange, W. P.;Immenga, D.
Ebb-tidal delta response to shipping channel dredging, Tauranga, New Zealand
Pacific Coasts and Ports'97. Proceedings Volume 2, Centre for Advanced Engineering, University of Canterbury, 1997


Abstract: The effects on ebb-tidal delta morphodynamics resulting from deepening and widening of a shipping channel through the ebb-tidal delta are examined using detailed annual bathymetric survey data. The data show the post-dredging geomorphic configuration of the ebb-tidal delta has remained broadly stable but significant localised changes occurred. The net volume change over the ebb-tidal delta was negligible for the comparison period relative to the measurement and calculation errors. However, the sedimentation in the navigation channel through the delta seems to have increased after the dredging from a long-term average of 70,000 to about 130,000 m3 per year. Near-bottom current measurements show ebb tidal dominance offshore of the proximal ebb channel, but flood currents dominate for about 80% of the tidal cycle in the adjacent more-sheltered regions. The adjacent regions are evidently influenced by an eddy operating during most of the ebb phase.


McArtney, S. J.; Walker, J. T. S.
Current situation and future challenges facing the production and marketing of organic fruit in Oceania
International Society Horticultural Science, 2004


Abstract: Australia has almost half of the global area in managed organic production, much of it low productivity land for cattle production. Organic food accounts for 1 percent of the total food market in Australia, however the demand still exceeds production so little organic food is exported. Major supermarkets in Australia tend not to have developed organic products as part of their marketing strategic position, so that demand for organic food remains outside the mainstream food industry. Nevertheless beef, carrots, citrus, wheat and wine are considered target products for priority development in organic production systems within Australia. New Zealand produces organic food on 46 000 hectares, much of it grown for export. Fresh fruit accounts for 71 percent of all organic exports with kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) and apple (Malus x domestica) making up the bulk of this category. Production systems for kiwifruit and apples in New Zealand have moved from conventional to either Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) or organic production systems over the last decade in response to market signals rather than to government subsidies. Organic apple and kiwifruit production systems typically yield less than conventional or IFP systems. Market premiums for organic fruit have until recently compensated for reduced yield. Declining premiums can quickly erode the profitability of current substitutional organic production systems. For kiwifruit, organically acceptable alternatives to hydrogen cyanamide are needed to enhance bud break and flowering and to fumigation for a key quarantine-actionable pest. For apple, the lack of alternatives to sulphur-based fungicides and of acceptable thinning technology limit profitability. Continued expansion of organic apple production will be dependent on development of orchard systems that integrate resistant cultivars; and ground cover management systems, that optimise nutrient and water status of trees, and that enhance bio-control and bio-diversity.


McBride, G.B; Salmond, C.E; Bandaranayake, D.R; Turner, S.J; Lewis, G.D; Till, D.G.
Health Effects of Marine Bathing in New Zealand
International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 1998


Abstract: Prospective epidemiological studies on the possible health effects from sea bathing were carried out at seven popular New Zealand bathing beaches over the 1995 summer. The association of gastrointestinal/ respiratory symptoms or other infections with human or animal faecal contamination of the beach water was examined. Beach users were interviewed at the beach and then followed up within 5 days to ascertain any illness symptoms. On each of the 107 interview days multiple samples of the beach water were examined for three faecal indicators (faecal coliforms, E. coli , enterococci). Of the usable responses, 2307 users did not enter the water; 1577 did. Log-linear modelling showed that enterococci was most strongly and consistently associated with illness risk for the exposed groups, particularly for respiratory illness among paddlers and long-duration swimmers. Crude risk differences for these two groups were 7 and 33 per 1000 individuals, rising to 62 and 87 per 1000 individuals for the highest enterococci quartile. No substantial differences in illness risks were found between the human and animal waste impacted beaches, though both were markedly different from the control beaches. The results are being used to develop recommendations for sampling design and use of single-sample maxima in new bathing-water guidelines.


McBride, M.B.
Toxic Metals in Sewage Sludge-amended soils: Has Promotion of Beneficial Use Discounted the Risks?
Advances in Environmental Research, 2003


Abstract: Land application of contaminated waste products has been defended as beneficial use by some scientists and regulators, based on the premise that the behavior of any toxins accumulated in soils from this practice is reasonably well understood and will not have detrimental agronomic or environmental impacts into the foreseeable future.In this review, I use the case of toxic metals in sewage sludges applied to agricultural land to illustrate that metal behavior in soils and plant uptake is difficult to generalize because it is strongly dependent on the nature of the metal, sludge, soil properties and crop.Nevertheless, permitted agricultural loadings of toxic metals from sewage sludges are typically regulated using the sole criterion of total metal loading or concentrations in soils.Several critical generalizing assumptions about the behavior of sludge-borne metals in soil-crop systems, built into the US EPA risk assessment for metals, have tended to underestimate risks and are shown not to be well justified by published research.It is argued that, in the absence of a basic understanding of metal behavior in each specific situation, a more precautionary approach to toxic metal additions to soils is warranted.


McCrone, A.
National overview of biological monitoring in New Zealand's Marine Protected Areas
Department of Conservation, 2001


Abstract: This report provides a national overview of biological monitoring that has been undertaken or is in progress for 25 Marine Protected Areas and Applications (MPAAs) in New Zealand - 16 marine reserves (MR) and the Sugar Loaf Islands Marine Park (SLIMPA) and 8 marine reserve applications (MRA). MPAAs have been established since 1975, however, most MPAAs (22) have only been established or the applications lodged in the last 10 years. There have been a total of 41 baseline surveys and monitoring programmes undertaken in 19 of the 25 MPAAs since 1975. About half the MPAAs (15) in NZ have had a baseline survey conducted near to the establishment of the MR or the application of a MRA. Many of these baseline surveys were not used to establish monitoring programmes. Most of the baseline surveys included habitat surveys. Generally habitat monitoring has not been continued. Eighteen MPAAs have had monitoring programmes undertaken. There are 9 programmes currently running that are formally planned to continue beyond June 2000. Most monitoring programmes that have been undertaken or are currently underway focus on examining changes in population abundance and size structures of selected key species especially reef fish species, rock lobster, paua and kina. A total of 52 monitoring reports have been produced to date, with a further 9 in the process of being produced. The overview has shown that marine survey and monitoring work has not been well co-ordinated in the past. It is recommended that biological monitoring should be nationally co-ordinated. Benefits arising from this would include assistance with obtaining funding and other necessary resources, assessment and standardisation of baseline surveys and monitoring programmes centralised storage of data and reports, and the development of protocols of what and how to monitor. However, much of this work is currently underway with the development of a Standard Operating Procedure for survey and monitoring in marine reserves.


McCrone, A.
Visitor impacts on marine protected areas in New Zealand
Department of Conservation, 2001


Abstract: The establishment of marine protected areas in New Zealand has accelerated in recent times. The first marine protected area was established in 1975. Four more were established during the 1980s and 15 in the 1990s. Public interest and hence visitor numbers have grown to a point where serious concerns are being expressed about potential negative impacts of visitors on the conservation values within these areas. A survey of New Zealand and international literature was made to identify negative impacts associated with visitors, plus any useful lessons from international research that would be relevant to the New Zealand situation. Most studies looked at visitor impacts on the coastal area in general than on marine protected areas specifically; and compared with international literature, visitor impacts on marine protected areas have been little studied in New Zealand. The review showed that there are some significant problems associated with visitors to marine reserves in New Zealand. These include damage to intertidal and subtidal reefs and changes to fish behaviour through interactions with visitors feeding them. Managers of each marine protected area need to identify and assess visitor impacts in their area, and monitor the situation in order to adopt timely management responses. They also need to monitor the success or otherwise of the visitor management techniques they employ. It is suggested that further research is required to assess the biological significance of visitor impacts on marine protected areas in New Zealand. There is also a need to instigate and maintain long-term research to assess the impacts of various visitor activities and hence their sustainability.



McIntosh, J.
Water and sediment quality of Tauranga Harbour
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 1994


Abstract: This volume is part of a four volume series describing investigations regarding the environmental resources of Tauranga Harbour. Extensive fieldwork was carried out between July 1990 and June 1991. Water quality of the harbour inflows, harbour water and sediment chemistry are described in this report.


McIntosh, J.
Shellfish Quality Assessment
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 1999


Abstract: This report looks at shellfish quality in Bay of Plenty waters. Bacterial, pollutant, metal, tin and other contaminants are investigated.


McIntosh, J.
NERMN Estuarine Water Quality
Environment Bay of Plenty, 2003


Abstract: As part of Environment Bay of Plenty’s Natural Environment Regional Monitoring Network (NERMN), the water quality of estuarine sites around the Bay of Plenty is monitored. This data combines with estuarine ecological monitoring to build up a picture of the state of the estuaries and the trends in environmental changes. This report collates the water quality data since 1990. In the period of monitoring some changes have taken place in the sampling strategy with some new sites being added and some sites changed to another adjacent location. The objective of the monitoring programme is to determine the quality of estuarine waters of the Bay of Plenty and trends in their quality, compliance of the water with appropriate objectives in the regional coastal Environment Plan. Generally the estuaries of the Bay of Plenty are of high to good quality. However, this is most likely assisted by dilution with coastal waters. The sites with minor excursions from the bathing guideline have greater freshwater influences. In these catchments, agricultural, industrial and urban sources contribute bacteria to the waterways. Matata Lagoon has the poorest quality, probably due to the large waterfowl population. Monitoring at 2 monthly intervals will continue at the 21 estuarine sites.


McIntosh, J
Kiwifruit and Dairying Effects on Shallow Groundwater
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2009


Abstract: This study was initiated to examine how the development of kiwifruit orchards affects nutrient levels (particularly nitrate) in shallow groundwater in comparison to dairying. The study was incorporated as ‘in-kind’ support with a Sustainable Farming Fund (SFF) project which was examining nitrogen and water use in Hort16A (gold) kiwifruit. The study sites were at Kelly Road, Maketu, and included a kiwifruit orchard and a dairy farm about to be converted to a kiwifruit orchard. At each site five bores were drilled to around 6 metres and the water quality was monitored for three years. The key finding of the study is that nutrient exports are considerably less from kiwifruit than from dairying as summarised in the table below.


McIntosh, J.; Deely, J.
Urban stormwater
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2001


Abstract: EBOP staff carried out a project to examine the effects of stormwater discharge on the environment of the Bay of Plenty. Because of the difficulties involved in sampling stormwater, simultaneously, over extended areas of the Bay of Plenty a method of sediment sampling was employed. A matrix of sites was set up in three urban centres, Tauranga/Mt Maunganui, Rotorua and Whakatane, with 5 replicate sites in selected residential, commercial and industrial areas. A surface sample from freshly deposited sediment was sampled in stormwater catchments after storm events. Contaminants levels in the sediment were determined.Contaminant levels in urban stormwater are elevated above background levels coming from rural environments. Industrial and commercial land use generates the greatest quantity of contaminants. Even in a small community such as Whakatane, the commercial and industrial sector had considerable effect on contaminant levels in the environment.


McIntosh, J. ; Gibbons-Davies, J.G.
Bathing Suitability Investigations Summer 2000/01
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, 2001


Abstract: Over the summer of 2000/01, Environment B.O.P staff sampled bathing waters in the Bay of Plenty in accordance with The Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry of Health Recreational Water Quality Guidelines (1999). The new guidelines promote annual surveys of bathing beaches. Consequently an annual programme has been implemented to complement the three yearly Bay of Plenty bathing suitability survey. Marine, estuarine, stream and lake sites selected included the most popular tourist bathing beaches, sites based on risk assessment of previous years data, and those based on local issues raised by the liaison group. Environment B.O.P staff undertook the majority of the sampling and analysis. The results show that marine, estuarine and lake sites were safe for bathing for the complete period of monitoring. The Waimapu Stream and Waihi Beach stream sites, however, were found to have very poor water quality for all of the summer and signs were erected to warn the public against bathing in these waters. Little Waihi Estuary and the Waiteti Stream were in alert mode for much, or all, of the sampling period. As a result of a record of poor bathing water quality at Whakarewarewa in the past, a catchment survey of the Puarenga Stream and its tributaries was undertaken prior to the summer sampling programme. There was communication with resource consent holders in the catchment prior to and during the survey so that they would be aware of the current findings. Despite high bacterial levels being found in some of the tributaries, the site at Whakarewarewa remained suitable for bathing over the summer of 2000/2001. Publicity over contamination problems was effective in reducing contamination at Pilot Bay although the exact cause of the contamination was not found. The approach taken over the Puarenga Stream catchment will be followed in future years with other catchments where bacterial contamination has been consistently high. Next summer, the Waimapu Stream and its tributary the Waiorahi Stream will be surveyed. A combination of publicity and catchment sampling will be used to find the source(s) of contamination and draw people’s attention to the types of activities that result in bacterial discharges.

Points to note:

  • Sites monitored in the Tauranga Harbour and its tributaries were: Omokoroa, Anzac Bay, Pilot Bay (estuarine) and Waimapu Stream and two of its tributaries (freshwater).
  • Marine waters were analysed for enterococci (only) using the USEPA Method 1600, with the results checked against APHA Method 9230C. Freshwaters were analysed for Escherichia coli using the APHA Method 9213D, which is also known as USEPA Method 1103.1 1985.
  • Anzac Bay and Omokoroa were safe for bathing over the summer period of 2000/2001 (i.e. there were no exceedances above an enterococci running medium of 35/100mL). Monitoring of septic tank seepage at Omokoroa has shown that contaminated discharges are occurring to open waters. However, at a depth of sampling (500 mm) for bathing quality, sufficient dilution occurred to render the contamination to ‘safe’ levels.
  • Pilot Bay only had a single ‘alert’ exceedance (enterococci level of 147/100mL) on 22/11/00.
  • The Waimapu Stream site at Greerton Park was found to exceed the bathing guidelines continually, with the highest single exceedances being 3700/100mL E.coli, with an average running medium of 435/100mL E.coli (alert level is >126/100mL E.coli). Upstream sampling showed that the Waiorohi tributary was the primary source of contamination.



McKenna, A.P.
A Recreational Geography of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary, Christchurch
University of Canterbury, 1979


Abstract: This thesis has a brief description of the impacts of sea lettuce blooms to the Avon-Heathcote Estuary. This thesis examines the recreational use of a multi-functionaI resource, the Avon-Heathcote Estuary.The nature of resources suitable for outdoor recreation in the Christchurch area and the present use made of them are explored through a demand-supply framework. Although exploratory, the research into recreational use of an estuarine environment advocates the need for a greater understanding of resource capabilities and use requirements. To this end, a framework which examines both user and resource is described. Recreation resources within the study area are identified and examined with respect to quantity, quality and distribution. Recreational demand is analysed in terms of measures of recreationalists' attitudes preferences and activities. The diversity of functions provided by the Avon-Heathcote Estuary means that recreation must be considered in relation to other uses. In view of the expected growth in recreational use of the Estuary the notion of carrying capacity is introduced.The capacity concept is discussed within the wider context of maintaining user satisfaction and conserving the estuarine environment.


McKenzie, Len; Yoshida, Rudi; Unsworth, Richard
Seagrass-Watch global assessment and monitoring programme
Seagrass Watch, 2010


Abstract: Seagrass-Watch news was first published in October 1998. Issue 1 came out as an A4 one page black and white document and was distributed to only a handful of participants in Hervey Bay and the Whitsundays (Qld, Australia). Since then the newsletter has undergone a number of changes. Issue 25 (April 2006) saw Seagrass-Watch news change again, this time to full colour with changes to the front page and subtle changes to the layout. Finally, the newsletter has evolved to a magazine format, highlighting Seagrass-Watch activities, seagrass research globally and a readership in the thousands globally.


McKerchar, A. I.; Henderson, R. D.
Shifts in flood and low-flow regimes in New Zealand due to interdecadal climate variations
Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2003


Abstract: Thirty-one of the longest available stream-flow records for New Zealand were analysed to see whether shifts in flood and low-flow regime occurred in 1977/1978 corresponding to a shift in phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation. Annual peak flows, and annual minimum flows averaged over 28 days, for two periods, 1947-1977 and 1978-1999, were compared using box plots and statistical tests. The plots and the tests show that a decrease of flood size has occurred since 1978 in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island, and that increases in flood size and low-flow magnitude have occurred in the South Island for most rivers with headwaters draining from the main divide of the Southern Alps and Southland. For much of the North Island apart from the Bay of Plenty, and the north of the South Island, no consistent pattern of shifts was identified.


McKergow L.A. , Davies-Colley R.J.
Stormflow dynamics and loads of Escherichia coli in a large mixed land use catchment
Hydrological Processes, 2009


Abstract: Storm events are major transporters of faecal microbial contaminants, but few studies have reported storm loads or concentration dynamics in relation to discharge or other pollutants, notably fine sediment. Episodically, high loads of faecal contamination during storm flows impact downstream uses of water bodies, particularly contact recreation and shellfish harvesting. We examined the storm dynamics of Escherichia coli, turbidity and discharge in the mixed land use Motueka catchment (2047 km2; 60% forest and 19% pasture) to gain insights into E. coli sources and transport. We also explored different approaches for calculating E. coli loads. Discharge and field turbidity were recorded continuously, and E. coli concentrations were sampled during events, over a 13-month period near the mouth of the Motueka River. E. coli loads were estimated by interpolation, averaging estimators and by using linear regression with smearing correction of the log-transformed variables: discharge, turbidity, and both turbidity and discharge. The annual E. coli load was dominated (98%) by export during events. Comparison of monthly monitoring with the intensive storm monitoring campaign suggests that simple stratification of the sampling into storm and baseflow would greatly improve export estimates. E. coli peak concentrations always preceded discharge and turbidity peaks (which had similar timing). Turbidity can be a useful surrogate for faecal microbes in smaller catchments, but in the Motueka turbidity was no better for predicting E. coli concentration than discharge. Runoff from grazed pasture and direct deposition from livestock are probably the ultimate E. coli sources in the Motueka catchment. However, in-channel stores seem to dominate E. coli dynamics during events and account for the typical feature of bacterial concentrations peaking ahead of discharge and turbidity. This study demonstrates the importance of storm events to faecal microbial loads and shows that E. coli concentration dynamics may contrast with those of turbidity.


McKoy, J.L
Vertical distribution of New Zealand shipworms (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 1981


Abstract: In Tauranga Harbour, Lyrodus medilobatus was found ingreatest numbers on test blocks placed near the bottom, while Bankia australis, B. neztalia, and Nototeredo edax has a more uniform vertical distribution. Shipworms occurred in the intertidal zone up to about mean sea level. In Wellington Harbour, B. neztalia was found in test blocks up to mean sea level, but was most abundant in blocks near the bottom. In the Bay of Islands, shipworms settled in the intertidal on test blocks as high as 30cm below mean sea level. B. australis was the most abundant species in mangrove wood in northern New Zealand, and L. medilobatus occurred occasionally. No evidence was found for shipworms settling on living mangrove wood, although they frequently tunnelled from dead wood into living wood.


McLintock, A. H.
Mud Snail
An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand 1966


Abstract: Amphibola crenata: About the size of a garden snail, this is the shellfish seen scattered in thousands over upper tidal mud flats. It feeds by sifting organic particles from the mud. The species is remarkable in that it breathes by means of a primitive lung, not gills. It is the only air-breathing marine snail possessing an operculum. The Māori esteemed this shellfish as food and called it titiko.



McPherson, H. G.; Richardson, A. C.; Snelgar, W. P.; Currie, M. B.
Effects of hydrogen cyanamide on budbreak and flowerings in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward')
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 2001


Abstract: Effects of hydrogen cyanamide (HC) application to kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A. R. Ferguson 'Hayward') vines were assessed over four seasons (1996-99) in three New Zealand kiwifruit-growing areas. HC advanced the date of budbreak to c. 40 days after application, despite the date of application varying from 33 to 92 days before natural budbreak. For every day that HC advanced budbreak, there was a 0.5-day advance in the date of flowering (r(2) = 0.92). The smaller advance in flowering resulted from the cooler temperatures experienced between budbreak and flowering in the treated vines. HC applications tended to reduce the spread of budbreak and flowering, with the greatest effect at the warmest sites.


McShane, O.
Mangroves and Estuarine Ecologies. A Report in Five Parts Based on Studies of Mangroves and Settlements in the Kaipara Harbour
Centre for Resource Management Studies, 2005


Abstract: Owen McShane is the Director of the Centre for Resource Management Studies which is a small executive office in the Northland of New Zealand. Present trustees of the Centre include Don Brash, Noel Lane, Sir Roger Douglas, Dick Quax, Alan Gibbs and Owen McShane. This report is produced by this Centre on the mangroves in the Kaipara Harbour.




Mead, S.; Black, K.
A multipurpose, artificial reef at Mount Maunganui Beach, New Zealand
Coastal Management, 1999

Abstract: A multipurpose, artificial, offshore reef has been designed for construction at Mount Maunganui Beach, New Zealand. The proposed reef will form the basis for research into coastal protection, amenity enhancement (particularly surfing, but also diving, fishing, and beach recreation), biological response, and social and economic impacts. In order to proceed with reef construction, a five-year resource permit is being sought from the regulatory authority, and this application required an assessment of the likely environmental impacts of the proposed reef. The studies undertaken for the assessment included the examination of physical, biological, social, and economic impacts. A comprehensive design process was undertaken to incorporate the amenity of surfing into a submerged reef shape. Programs to monitor physical and biological responses, as well as social and economic impacts, were also established. These studies support the use of multipurpose, artificial, offshore reefs as an environmentally friendly solution to coastal protection. The reefs also cater to the growing demand for more coastal-amenity development.


Mead, S.; Longdill, P.; Moores, A.; Beamsley, B.; Black, K.
Bay of Plenty Biological Survey: Aquaculture Management Areas
ASR and University of Waikato, 2005


Abstract: Sediment samples and dredge tow samples obtained from the seabed in depths ranging from 10 m to 100 m depth within the eastern Bay of Plenty (Pukehina to Ruakokore) in December 2004 have been analysed for both infaunal and epifaunal organisms. In addition over 200 video camera images have been obtained over the same area to classify the variability of the seabed habitat and environment. These data provide base-line information on the variety of organisms that inhabit the Bay of Plenty seabed and insight into the relative abundance and distribution of these organisms and their association with different physical seabed characteristics in the survey area. A total of 3257 individuals (124 species from 14 groups) were identified in the grab and dredge-tow samples. Polychaetes and amphipods are the dominant fauna in the area, however, large variations in species and abundance were found, demonstrating the patchy distribution of benthic organisms. Some associations with respect to sediment type were evident. For example, amphipods dominate shallower (<50 m) mud/silt areas, while polychaetes dominate sandy areas, with high organic content. A wide variety of bivalves are spread throughout region, although some patterns are present, i.e. larger numbers of deposit-feeding bivalves are present in the in the muddy areas compared to the sandy areas.


Memon, P.A.; Selsky, J.W.,
Institutional design for the co-management of an urban harbour in New Zealand
Society & Natural Resources, 1998


Abstract: What factors affect the design of an institutional framework for stakeholder management to promote sustainable outcomes for ports in urban settings? In examining this research question, we characterize urban harbors as complex common property resource systems (CPRs). Complex CPRs differ from simple CPRs in several ways that highlight the need for, but also the difficulties of, integrated management that promotes sustainable outcomes. We review the literatures on locational conflicts, corporate social responsibility, and comanagement for insights that bear on this problem. We then examine the port on the Otago Harbour as a case study in shifting institutional arrangements in a complex CPR, focusing on long-standing conflicts between the port company and the local community. Finally, we draw implications for the design of effective comanagement arrangements for ports located in dynamic and diverse communities.



Menneer, J.C.;Ledgrad, S.F.;Gillingham, A.G.;
Land use impacts on nitrogen and phosphorus loss and management options for intervention
AgReserach, 2004


Abstract: The amounts of N and P loss from different agricultural land uses are summarised and the main sources of losses are reviewed for the New Zealand scene using literature published up until 2003. Also presented is a summary of the main land management options known to reduce N and P losses. Of the land use systems considered in this report, the potential for causing nitrate leaching typically follow the order: forestry < sheep/beef/deer farming < arable/mixed cropping < dairy farming < vegetable cropping. Insufficient information is available to establish the order of orcharding and organic farming within this framework. The lowestnitrate leaching losses are in forestry systems which average about 3 kg N haˉ¹ yrˉ¹, whereas the greatest losses are in intensively managed vegetable cropping systems at an average of 177 kg N haˉ¹ yrˉ¹. In typical dairy farm systems, nitrate leaching losses average approximately 40 kg N haˉ¹ yrˉ¹. The majority of the N leaching occurs during winter when soil drainage is greatest. In grazing systems, the main source of leached nitrate is from patches of deposited urine, which can have high N concentrations equivalent to between 500 and 1000 kg N haˉ¹ depending on the animal type (e.g. sheep versus cattle). Direct leaching of fertiliser N has only a marginal effect on nitrate leaching under grazing and only when N applications are excessive (>400 kg N haˉ¹ yrˉ¹) or untimely (e.g. ³ 50 kg N haˉ¹ in winter ). In contrast, in cropping systems, the main sources of leached nitrate are from fertiliser N and crop residues that remain in the soil following harvest. In addition, the amount of nitrate leached is greatly influenced by the length of the fallow period following crop harvest and the subsequent timing of cultivation. To reduce nitrate leaching from these sources a range of management options are available. These options relate to making improvements to various components of individual land use types, such as: grazing management, cultivation practices, winter crop management and fertiliser N management. In grazing systems, the most significant gains in reducing nitrate leaching from animal urine are achieved by minimising the time animals spend on pasture during winter to reduce urine N inputs. In a dairy system, grazing cows off over winter or the use of a feed-pad during winter can reduce nitrate leaching by up to 60%. Other more novel approaches (e.g. low feed N supplements and nitrification inhibitors) show potential but their role in reducing nitrate leaching has yet to be quantified. In arable cropping systems the timing of cultivation and the presence of a winter cover crop are management strategies which can markedly reduce nitrate leaching. By cultivating soon after harvest (e.g. late summer) and planting a winter cover crop to utilise released N, nitrate leaching losses can be reduced by up to 80%. Under vegetable cropping, matching the rate of applied N fertiliser to crop requirements in conjunction with splitting, placement and timing of fertiliser N applications are the best strategies for reducing nitrate leaching. Using this type of tactical fertiliser management can decrease nitrate leaching losses by between 24% and 45% depending on the technique of N application. Compared to N losses, P losses from agricultural systems are generally much less (e.g. 21-177 versus 0.11-1.60 kg haˉ¹ yrˉ¹, respectively), but can still have a critical impact on the eutrophicaton of surface waters. The main mechanism leading to increased P in waterways is through elevated P concentrations in surface run-off. In contrast, N run-off is minor relative to leaching losses on most soils. The amount of P in run-off from different land uses has been less researched than N losses. Nonetheless, in general, forestry seems to contribute the least amount of P to waterways, followed by hill country sheep farming. The P losses from forestry systems range from 0.07-0.10 kg P haˉ¹ yrˉ¹, whereas in hill country sheep farms P transfer to waterways is in the range of 0.11-0.75 kg P haˉ¹ yrˉ¹. When cattle are a component of the grazing system (e.g. sheep and cattle systems), P losses can be up to 1.60 kg P haˉ¹ yrˉ¹. However, a recent study showed extreme losses of 10 kg P haˉ¹ yrˉ¹ from a dairy catchment in an extremely high rainfall area of Westland. Unfortunately, there is only limited information on the amount of P lost from typical dairy and cropping systems (e.g. vegetable cropping). P losses from these more intensive land uses are likely to vary dramatically with differences in animal stocking rate, soil type, topography, cultivation, fallow periods, cover crop and P fertiliser management. Further research is required in intensively managed New Zealand agricultural systems to determine their importance in contributing P to surface waters. High risk periods for P loss are generally during late winter and early spring when high rainfall and soil moisture often coincide leading to the potential for run-off and P transport. In general, the majority of P (up to 80%) in run-off is in the form of particlebound P (e.g. bound to sediment or organic material) while less than 20% is present as dissolved P. The main factors affecting the amount and type of P in run-off from different land uses are a mix of edaphic features and farm management practices, and jointly include: topography, soil type, soil P status, animal treading, and fertiliser management. To reduce P losses from agricultural systems appropriate management options are required to minimise the impact of these factors. Five key areas of system management should be targeted: (1) P fertiliser management (2) grazing management (3) riparian management (4) post-harvest crop management (5) whole-system management. For example, in grazing systems animal treading damage should be minimised so the risk of increased sediment in run-off and increased P in waterways is reduced. This could be achieved by winter and spring grazing management strategies that incorporate a stand-off pad (in a non-critical area) to restrict grazing-time on pasture. In cropping systems, where harvesting removes the protective vegetation cover (e.g. forestry, vegetable cropping, and mixed/arable cropping), post-harvest management strategies should be utilised to reduce the potential for surface run-off and erosion during storm events (e.g. zero tillage, cover crops, timing of cultivation). Many of these management strategies serve a dual purpose in terms of reducing both N and P losses from agricultural systems suggesting that a more holistic approach is worthwhile. At the whole system level, more complete approaches include farm nutrient budgeting and precision farming to integrate the different components of individual agricultural systems. Whole system nutrient budget models can predict the amount of nitrate leaching and P run-off loss based on N and P inputs and outputs while considering the different management strategies of the land use involved. This enables management decisions to be made that will minimise N and P losses to the environment. Similarly, precision farming can assist in minimising N and P losses by considering the spatial and temporal variability of soil attributes and crop characteristics within a farm/field and assist in the decision making process for selecting and adopting appropriate site-specific levels of management (e.g. critical source areas).


Meynier, L.; Stockin, K. A.; Bando, M. K. H.; Duignan, P. J.
Stomach contents of common dolphin (Delphinus sp.) from New Zealand waters
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2008


Abstract: This paper investigated the stomach contents of common dolphin from New Zealand waters. The study was based on stomach content of 53 common dolphin (42 stranded and 11 by-caught) collected from the North Island of New Zealand between 1997 and 2006. It was found that the diet of common dolphin comprised a diverse range of fish and cephalopod species, dominated by arrow squid, jack mackerel and anchovy. Examination of the diet content of stranded dolphins from coastal waters, and dolphins by-caught within neritic waters, suggests that dolphins move between inshore/offshore on a diel basis.


Michael, R. G.
Managed aquatic ecosystems
Elsevier, 1987

Abstract: A collection of papers on fish and shellfish environment management is presented, covering carp ponds, fresh-water ponds worldwide and in Europe, man-made reservoirs in India, microalgae culture and oyster culture in Japan.


Michels, K.; Healy, T. R.
Port of Tauranga investigation of sediments to be dredged in the lower town reach-upper Stella passage and disposal of at an inner shelf dump ground
Port of Tauranga, 1998


Abstract: The report investigates, the composition of sediments to be dredged from southerly wharf extension in the inner Stella Passage upstream from the present Sulphur Point wharves; and identify a suitable disposal ground on the inner shelf for the substantially muddy sediments expected in the area to be dredged in the future together with any other dredged materials with a significant silt and clay content which do not comply for dumping in the present Port of Tauranga ocean disposal site. The report provides the scientific basis for an application by the Port of Tauranga to Environment Bay of Plenty for a resource consent to dredge the Tauranga harbour. The report concludes that dredged sediments contain considerable amounts of silt and clay and may cause high turbidity in the water column when dredged. Therefore, rather than using a trailer-suction dredge it was thought to use a bucket. A new disposal area is also suggested in 32 meters of water. The disposal zone is situated well away from popular diving areas.


Michels, K.H.; Healy, T.R.
Wharves extension No 3 at Sulphur Point South - Investigation of sediments to be dredged in the low town reach - Upper Stella Passage and disposed of at an inner shelf dump ground
Port of Tauranga Ltd, 1998


Abstract: For the 1992 major “Channel Deepening and Widening Programme” of the Tauranga Port Company Ltd. Extensive investigations, involving vibrocores and subbottom profiling, established that predominantly the channel bottom sediment in Tauranga Harbour consists of marine sand. Only in the Stella Passage a band of puggy estuarine silt was identified in the area to be dredged in the inner Stella Passage upstream from the present Sulphur Point wharves for the Sulphur Point Wharf Extension South.


Michels, Klaus H.; Healy, Terry R.
Evaluation of an inner shelf site off Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand, for disposal of muddy-sandy dredged sediments
Coastal Education & Research Foundation, Inc, 1999


Abstract: A planned extension of the Port of Tauranga requires capital dredging of material containing significant amounts of silt and clay. The existing disposal ground located about 4 km offshore in water depths of 15 to 25 m, is unsuitable as it was designed for slow migration of predominantly sandy materials onshore to nourish the adjacent beaches. Investigation for a new disposal site involved consideration of alternatives, but the "best practical option" selected was offshore of the existing ground in water depths of 28-33 m. Site research included side scan sonar imagery of the sea floor, sediment sampling by SCUBA diving, and deployment of a current meter for several weeks during the spring season to obtain background hydrodynamic data. Analysis of the data indicated that motion of medium to coarse sands occurs during periods of high swell conditions. Calculations of potential transport of discrete mud "clasts" suggest that small units ( $\lesssim cm$ ) may move under large waves ( $T_s = 11 s$ , $H_s = 1.6 m$ ), but larger mud "clasts" would be stable. It is expected that the existing high disposal mound immediately shoreward of the proposed new disposal ground would hinder onshore migration of muddy clasts.



Mildenhall, D. C.; Brown, L. J.
An early Holocene occurrence of the mangrove Avicennia marina in Poverty Bay, North Island, New Zealand: its climatic and geological implications
New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1987


Abstract: Pollen evidence indicates that the mangrove Avicennia marina var. resinifera (Forst. f.) Bakh. (Avincenniaceae) once occurred in Poverty Bay, and its presence is used as evidence for warm climate following the last glaciation. Radiocarbon dates indicate a maximum of 9840 ± 190 years B. P. (NZ 6309B)* for this warm climate event, coinciding with the Holocene climatic optimum. The mangrove is currently found c. 1° further north in the Bay of Plenty. The climatic implications of the pollen data when considered with macrofaunal determinations, sediment lithologies, depositional environments, and radiocarbon associated with the postglacial rise in sea-level, local tectonic activity, and the concomitant change in coastal geomorphology. A full description of the pollen of extant Avicennia marina var. resinifera is presented.


Millennium Assessment
Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Framework for Assessment
Island Press, 2003


Abstract: Ecosystems and Human Well-Being is the first product of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, a four-year international work program designed to meet the needs of decision-makers for scientific information on the links between ecosystem change and human well-being. The book offers an overview of the project, describing the conceptual framework that is being used, defining its scope, and providing a baseline of understanding that all participants need to move forward. The Millennium Assessment focuses on how humans have altered ecosystems, and how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being, how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades, and what types of responses can be adopted at local, national, or global scales to improve ecosystem management and thereby contribute to human well-being and poverty alleviation. The program was launched by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in June 2001, and the primary assessment reports will be released by Island Press in 2005.

Leading scientists from more than 100 nations are conducting the assessment, which can aid countries, regions, or companies by:

  • providing a clear, scientific picture of the current state of Earth's ecosystems at multiple scales
  • deepening our understanding of the relationship and linkages between ecosystems and human well-being, including economic, social and cultural aspirations
  • demonstrating the potential of ecosystems to contribute to poverty reduction and enhanced well-being
  • offering scenarios of our future human and ecological well-being
  • identifying and evaluating policy and management options for sustaining ecosystem services and harmonizing them with human needs

The Millennium Assessment is an invaluable new resource for professionals and policy-makers concerned with international development, environmental science, environmental policy, and related fields. It will help both in choosing among existing options and in identifying new approaches for achieving integrated management of land, water, and living resources while strengthening regional, national, and local capacities. It will also improve policy and decision-making at all levels through improved collaboration between natural and social scientists, and between scientists and policy-makers. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being is an essential introduction to the project.


Mills, V. Sadie; Berkenbusch, Katrin
Seagrass (Zostera muelleri) patch size and spatial location influence infaunal macroinvertebrate assemblages
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2009

Abstract: Seagrass landscapes are coastal environments that support diverse and abundant faunal communities. This study investigated infaunal assemblage patterns in fragmented and continuous Zostera muelleri habitat in southeastern New Zealand. Intertidal macroinvertebrate assemblages were examined in fragmented seagrass habitat (containing discrete patches varying in size from 1 to 200 m2) and continuous meadows (>1000 m2), in a small and a large tidal inlet. Community indices differed between seagrass habitat types and the total number of taxa was significantly lower at fragmented seagrass sites in one of the inlets. The total number of individuals and diversity were significantly different between fragmented and continuous seagrass habitat in both inlets, but diversity values showed inconsistent patterns between inlets. Multivariate analysis confirmed that different seagrass habitat types support distinct macrofaunal assemblages in each inlet and position on the shore was identified as the single most important variable explaining dissimilarities in assemblage compositions. These findings confirm the influence of seagrass habitat size on infaunal assemblages and also highlight the importance of spatial position of seagrass habitat in intertidal areas.


Ministry for the Environment
The state of New Zealand's environment
Ministry for the Environment, 1997


Abstract: This report to the nation describes New Zealand's natural environment, what we have done to it, and what we are doing now. It is written in the hope that, confronted by the available evidence, we can learn both from our successes and from our failures. In the short time that humans have been in New Zealand, we have dramatically changed the environment through such activities as harvesting, deforestation, wetland drainage, the introduction of pests and weeds, and the generation of pollution. The changes have generally led to economic improvement, but have been devastating for many indigenous species. Insome cases, they have also had an economic backlash (e.g. through soil erosion, flooding, soil and water contamination, and air pollution). It has to be said at the outset that much of this had to happen. Humans simply could not have survived here without making changes. Most of the indigenous plants were of limited use for food and fibre and most of the large edible animals were too slow breeding to be sustainably harvested. It is a tribute to the ingenuity and tenacity of classical Maori society that people survived here at all, and it is a tribute to the European settlers who came later that a prosperous and stable economy was built in such an apparently hostile environment. Today's New Zealand stands largely on the achievements of those vanished generations.



Ministry for the Environment
Environmental indicators for the sustainable management of freshwater
Ministry for the Environment, 1997


Abstract: The Ministry for the Environment is developing a core set of nationally standardised environmental indicators that will help to assess the state of the environment and help to monitor the effectiveness and suitability of regional and national environmental policy and legislation including the Resource Management Act (RMA) 1991 and the Government's Environment 2010 Strategy (MfE, 1995). Indicators will also help to monitor the effectiveness and suitability of regional policies and resource management methods. The purpose of this report is to suggest an approach to and some ezamples of indicators for the sustainable management of freshwater.



Ministry for the Environment
Summary of Proposed Indicators for the Marine Environment
Ministry for the Environment, 1998


Abstract: The overall purpose of the EPI Programme is to develop and use indicators to measure and report how well we are looking after our (marine) environment.

The Government’s objectives for the EPI Programme are:

  • To systematically measure the performance of its environmental policies and legislation
  • To better prioritise policy and improve decision making
  • To systematically report on the State of New Zealand’s environmental assets.

Sea grasses are a category 3



Ministry for the Environment
Environmental Performance Indicators: Marine Environment Potential Indicators for Physical and Chemical Processes, and Human Uses and Values
Ministry for the Environment, 1998


Abstract: The Ministry for the Environment is currently developing a comprehensive suite of indicators for assessing the state of our environment and measuring progress towards implementing the government’s strategy on the environment (Environment 2010). This report provides technical information on potential indicators for the marine environment specific to:

  • Physical and chemical processes; and
  • Human uses and values.

The report covers those indicators that were proposed by working groups and recommended to the Minister of Environment at the end of June 1998, as being worthy of further development. There was further analysis of these potential indicators before publication of the discussion document Environmental Performance Indicators: Proposals for the marine environment. Consequently there are some differences between the potential indicators described in this document and those proposed in the discussion document.




Ministry for the Environment
Environmental Performance Indicators: Confirmed Indicators for the Marine Environment
Ministry for the Environment, 2001


Abstract: This report confirms the environmental performance indicators (EPIs) for the marine environment. It explains how indicators were modified following submissions received to the draft discussion document (Environmental Performance Indicators: Proposals for the marine environment, MfE 1998a), identifies roles for each EPI, and provides detailed monitoring and reporting requirements. Finally, it canvasses the steps involved in implementing the indicators. The key audience for this report will be those implementing and reporting on these indicators, including regional councils, territorial local authorities, industry/commercial operators and, some central government departments.